Co-operation and Conflict - Northern Ireland and Republic of Ireland.
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Co-operation and Conflict Northern Ireland and Republic of Ireland As part of my conflict and co-operation section in my coursework, Ireland is thought to be a very good example as Ireland has been through various conflicts leading to one factor, for years now. Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland are two different countries. Ulster has a union with the British Government and its head of state is the Queen of England. Eire is a republic and democratic country with its own government in Dublin and consists of a majority of Catholic population. The conflict in Ireland is either religious or something else as the story of religion and conflict in Ireland, historically and today is the story of combinations of religion and politics, however social and economical factors do arise too. * Religious: Catholics and Protestants. * Political: Nationalists and Unionists. * Social: land ownership * Economical: Wealth and land ownership Between 100BC - 1500AD there were three groups of settlers who came to Ireland and as evidence suggests, these people came to Ireland as 'settlers' and so there no intentions to invade Ireland. Gaels Vikings Norman English Knights Therefore the Irish people were quite relaxed with the whole situation about the Gaels, Vikings and the Norman- English Knights settling in Ireland. Irish people connected with the people from the other culture and combined through bonding into a marriage and then obviously having children that are of mixed origin and multi-cultural. So the life of Irish people had a slight variation as they had modified a Gaelic way of living. This meant that there were similar kinds of people and of the same traditions to follow. The lives of the Irish people were quite stable as they had little power of the English Parliament over the Irish people and therefore there was no sign of any social or religious difficulties. The conflict first started when the English Monarch, James I sent Protestant plantations to Ireland where there was a population mainly consisting of Catholics.
He did this by a victory over the assistance of the Catholic priests and bishops. O'Connell's success was beginning to show as the majority of the Irish population voted for Daniel O'Connell. This democratic system sent shock waves to Britain which made the British government once again change its political, social and religious law. This was an important turning point as in the House of Commons there was another party who were the Irish Nationalists who could easily change the Act of Union. However it did take a few years to set up the new political party. Charles Stuart Parnell: a chief member of the Irish Parliamentary Nationalist Party. Parnell was the leader of the Nationalist MP's in Westminster. The Fenians came in use at this point as the Irish Nationalist Party who were recognised by the Liberal Democrats and the Conservatives, joined the 'Land League.' Charles Stuart Parnell Due to the combination of Arthur Griffith and Charles Stuart Parnell, they forced the British to change the Land Laws and this time to prohibit evictions and high rents also offering poor tenants loan from the bank. Parnell by the help of the Liberals attempted to build a Government in Dublin and therefore brought a 'home rule for Ireland' Bill. The Liberals had a fear that the 'Home Rule' would completely abolish the British involvement in Ireland and that the Irish trade of exports would gradually rise leaving England's wealth and power in doubt. By the several different parties opposing England, along came the opposition, Ulster Unionist. They feared that the Catholics would regain their power and land if the 'Home Rules' would get passed as they were the Nationalists who conquered Ireland. Ulster had a friend and that was, Britain of course who they could relay on especially the Conservative Party who was lead by Randolph Churchill. This was again all the political issues conquering the approach to partition.
In about 1790 there were two opposition partiers called the Nationalist and the Unionists. Revolutionary Nationalist leader was a protestant lawyer who clashed for independency but he failed as he used violence. This clearly states that it was not religious. As far as the question is concerned, this period of time when there were two different groups, in 1790-1921 was all political and there was just a slight peak of religious. And when Ireland was divided, since that time and the day today there have been many casualties, threats, explosions, bombing, injustice treatment etc... But what is it that's leading all these issues, it's not religious! The conflict in Ireland is a combination of factors that intertwine together. It is not only religious and the people who think that it is then they have only seen a biased part of the conflict. It is mainly political as it is to do with Britain, independency and gaining a peaceful environment. Leading to the fight of the Irish, the political power is the most important explanation to the root of the Conflict in Ireland. In my opinion I think that Ireland cannot and will not resolve their conflict ever. The reason of my prediction is the fact that since centuries the matter has been going from bad to worst and now the chance of them being independent is unthinkable. If parties like Sinn Féin and campaigners like the IRA would just try to think from another perspective the conflict might take another route. In my personal opinion, I think that the conflict is because of Britain wanting to have a power in their neighbouring county. They did this by invading and controlling Ireland so that Germany or other oppositions of Britain would not use Ireland as a 'back door' to invade Britain. They used the religious factor to do so, in my opinion. But as for the actual question, I can say after all my findings that it is not only a religious conflict in Ireland. It is mixture of all of them. Shaista Iqbal- Humanities Coursework- Candidate Number: 8282- Centre Number; 37113- Page 1
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