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Cold war

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International History. Option W - 1919-63 Part 2 1945-1963 (Key Issues 7-9) Key Issue 7- Why did the USA and the USSR become rivals in the period 1945-49 The breakup of the wartime alliances 1. A. What united GB, USA and the Soviet Union between 1941-5 In 1941 Hitler launched an attack on Russia, this breached the terms of the Nazi-Soviet pact. The USA GB and Russia had disliked the Germans for a long time because of their political ideas but this united them together against the Germans. 2. What disagreements were there between the USA and the Soviet Union during this period? The USA and Soviet Union had many differences during this period despite being allies. The main differences between the two countries were their political ideas. The Soviet Union was communist and a one party state, whereas the USA was a democratic country. In America there were numerous parties, all of whom were allowed to be a part of national elections which decided who would take control of their country. They also had social, economic and cultural differences. In the Soviet Union all industry was owned by communists and living standards were poor. ...read more.


A peace treaty could not be drawn up with Germany, nor was a frontier between Germany and Poland drawn up. Finally the promise of allowing elections in Eastern Europe was not followed up on. 3. Explain in your own words what is meant by the term "Cold War"? What were the main causes of the Cold War in 1945 and who was most to blame for starting it Truman or Stalin? The term "Cold War" refers to the time when there was massive tension between the two main superpowers, the USA and the Soviet Union. However no actual war took place between these 2 nations. There were numerous reasons for the beginning of the Cold War; the main underlying factors after World War 2 were ideological differences, Soviet expansion after the war, and American policies that aimed to stop Communism. However there was a more long term cause which rooted back to 1918. The west's deep rooted hatred and fear of communism which swept into power in Russia in 1918. Both the USA and the Soviet Union had separate ideologies at the end of the war, the expansion of the Soviet Union into Eastern Europe was seen as aggressive by the USA and the American economic aid to Europe was seen as expansion by the Soviet Union. ...read more.


4. Containment: The Truman Doctrine and Marshall Aid ai) The Truman doctrine was a policy in which president Truman began to follow in 1947. He sent money, equipment and advice to any country which was in his eyes threatened by a communist takeover. By now Truman had realised that Eastern Europe was communist, all he could do now was to try and stop it spreading further west, and it became known as containment ii) Truman strongly believed that communism was only successful when people faced poverty, unemployment and hardship. Marshall, the US secretary of state was sent to Eastern Europe to assess the state of Europe and its economy. He found a ruined economy when he arrived. The Americans decided an injection of aid was needed. The US provided 16 European countries with 17 billion dollars over the next four years. This became known as the "Marshall Aid". The money was used to build up industry and repair any damage. iii) Cominform was the joining together of all communist states as part of the communist information bureau. Stalin wanted to co-ordinate all the activities of the communist parties across Europe in order to strengthen their power and influence. Stalin did this to strengthen communism, after the Truman Doctrine and Marshall Aid was set up as he saw it all as a plan for American world domination. ...read more.

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