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Cold War Short Essays - Questions and Answers.

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Introduction

Transfer-Encoding: chunked Section 4 ? How did the Cold War develop? Describe one decision made by the Allies about the war against Germany at the Tehran Conference in 1943 (2 marks) The allies agreed that in the aftermath of the war, the USSR could have a soviet sphere of influence amongst the other countries in Eastern Europe. Describe one reason why there was tension between the superpowers at the Tehran Conference in 1943 (2 marks) There was tension between USSR and USA and GBR because Stalin wanted to weaken Germany by forcing them to pay large sums of reparations - this would mean that they would be too weak to attempt another war. However, Churchill and Roosevelt wanted to rebuild Germany because they wanted to stop history from repeating itself, as it did with World War I. Describe one reason why the Allies met at Yalta in February 1945 (2 marks) The allies met to discuss what would happen to Germany know that they had full control over them. They wanted to equally share out the land and resources and thus they decided to divide Berlin into four sections, and Germany into four sections as well ? one for each country. Describe one reason why the Marshall Plan was drawn up in 1947 (2 marks) The Marshall Plan was drawn up because the USA wanted to contain the spread of communism. The USA was committed to an economic recovery of the west and believed that poverty and hardship were the breeding ground for communism; thus the USA wanted to make the West prosperous. Describe one reason why NATO was formed in 1949 (2 marks) NATO was formed as a military alliance consisting entire of Western European countries. The main purpose of it was that if one country was attacked by the USSR and communism, the other members would help to defend it. This was strength in numbers. ...read more.

Middle

The Czechs did not resist militarily but they did offer passive resistance. This way the violence was limited. Dubcek was flown to Brezhnev and was forced to resign. Loyal communist, Husak, replaced him and the reforms were reversed. Briefly explain the key features of the soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968 (6 marks) One key feature was that Brezhnev was concerned about the reforms that Dubcek was implementing in Czechoslovakia. He thought that Czechoslovakia may try to leave the Warsaw Pact and would thus create a gap in the Iron Curtain ? the USSR would be left vulnerable to attacks made by the USA. Thus he sent in 400,000 Warsaw Pact troops in to restored order to Czechoslovakia. Another key feature was that Dubcek was forced to resign. Loyal communist follower, Husak, replaced him and reversed the reforms ? Czechoslovakia was firmly under soviet control once again. Western powers did not do anything to help the Czechs because they weren?t prepared to upset improving relations. A further key feature was that the USSR produced the Brezhnev Doctrine. It argued that a threat to one communist country was a threat to them all. This clearly echoed Truman?s Doctrine and the USA?s fear of the domino effect. It stated that there must only be a one party system and members could not leave the Warsaw Pact. Briefly explain the key features of the opposition to soviet control in Czechoslovakia in the spring of 1968 (6 marks) One key feature was that the Czechs became increasingly disappointed with Brezhnev?s promise of introducing the policy of ?socialism with a human face? because the USSR was not delivering what they?d promised. Dubcek, leader of Czechoslovakia, had promised new reforms such as the end of censorship, freedom to travel, other political parties etc. USSR?s failure to implement these reforms led the opposition in Czechoslovakia. Another key feature was that 400,000 Warsaw Pact troops moved into Czechoslovakia to restore order. The Czechs did not resist militarily; instead they offered passive resistance. ...read more.

Conclusion

This way Gorbachev could promote the interests of all people and the value of human rights. Glasnost enabled freedom of speech and greater personal and political freedoms e.g. other political parties were introduced and people had freedom to travel. A further reason was because of the ending of the Brezhnev Doctrine in 1985. Gorbachev believed that the way to rejuvenate socialism was by introducing a degree of liberalism. The armed forces shouldn?t be used to maintain control over the satellite states. In conclusion, all of these reasons led to the USSR loosening its grip on Eastern Europe. However, the most significant reason was because of Gorbachev?s policy of Glasnost which enabled countries greater freedom without fear of a soviet military retaliation. Explain why summit conferences were important in improving relations between the USA and USSR in the years 1985-89 (12 marks) The Geneva summit in 1985 improved relations because it gave the USSR and USA a chance to lay down the foundations for future negotiations in a cordial manner. Although Reagan despised communism, he liked Gorbachev. This made negotiations between the USSR and USA seem more possible and thus improved relations. The Reykjavik summit in 1986 improved relations as it showed that the USSR was willing to cooperate. Gorbachev made a series of concessions that took the USA by surprise. Despite the fact that USA was unwilling to negotiate SDI withdrawal, both countries seemed to be friendlier towards each other. The Washington Summit in 1987 saw the signing of the INF treaty. This treaty removed all medium-range missiles from Europe. Gorbachev wanted to sign this treaty as the USSR?s economy was suffering because of the Arms Race, and the USA had promised to not attack the USSR. This improved relations between the superpowers. In conclusion, all of these summits led to an improved relationship between the USSR and USA. One reason on its own cannot be to blame. However, the most significant reason was because of the Washington Summit and the signing of the INF treaty. This brought about a halt in the Arms? Race as well as a further thaw in relations. ...read more.

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