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Conflict and Quest for Peace in the Middle East

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Introduction

Conflict and Quest for Peace in the Middle East (1948-95) War broke out between Israel and its neighbouring Arab countries in 1948 as a result of the declaration of independence o 14th May 1948. This angered the Arabs who invaded on the following day. The Arabs outnumbered the Israelis 80-1. In September 1970 Colonel Abdul Nasser died of a heart attack. He was succeeded by Anwar Sadat. Sadat desperately wanted peace. However, the Israelis were unwilling to negotiate, they didn't even take an Egyptian army seriously because they were so confident. In order to change the balance of power and make the Israelis negotiate, Sadat would have to launch an invasion. The Arabs were determined not to make the same mistakes as before, and so decided to co-ordinate their attacks. They prepared to go to war with the aim of achieving total surprise. Sadat ordered the 15,000 soviet technicians, who had been installing the latest SAM missile systems, to go home. Sadat wanted Jordan to join the invasion and so he went to King Hussein and told him that Israel was about to invade, however, he did not fall for this trick and so flew to Israel to warn the then prime minister, Golda Meir, she did not believe him. ...read more.

Middle

He promised that he would achieve a peace settlement within 12 months. Initially he favoured talks with Syria, but again the talks failed because Syria would only negotiate if Israel gave back the Golan Heights. Rabin then turned hi attention to the secret talks taking place in Norway between Israel and Palestine. The second reason for the signing of the peace accords was that they were being negotiated not by politicians but by academics, this meant that they focused only on the things, which they could agree on, this was known as the Gaza First Policy. The final text was known as the Oslo Accords or Declaration of Principals and they were officially signed by both sides at the White house in September 1993. Following the Black September incident the PLO went to Lebanon and ran their terrorist operations for there. They chose Lebanon because it was in a state of disarray because it was in the middle of a Civil War. The PLO got stronger and Israel began to get nervous that they would cause their county serious harm and so they invaded in 1978 when the PLO attacked an Israeli bus and 34 civilians were killed. ...read more.

Conclusion

Numerous attempts were made to broker peace in the Middle East, such as Camp David in September 1978, however deals were never made due to the stubbornness of both sides. The second reason is that the Israelis were incredibly determined to keep their homeland. This was due to the fact that for 1900 years the Jews had been pushed round the world and suffered terrible persecution, such as the Holocaust in the 1940s, and when they finally got hold of a homeland they were hardly going to allow it to be taken over without a fight. This leads onto the third reason, which is the pure military superiority to the Arabs, which the Israelis possessed. Not only were they better equipped, but also they were better trained and more organised, a combination of these factors resulted in an Israeli victory in all of their confrontations with the Arabs. Whether it is down to Arab incompetence or Israeli competence, the Arabs have always failed to regain the Palestinian land, even thought there were many attempts to take them back. Perhaps the closest to being a success was Sadat's attempt to shock the Israelis into agreeing to a peace settlement with the Yom Kippur War in October 1973. ...read more.

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