• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Conflict and Quest for Peace in the Middle East

Extracts from this document...


Conflict and Quest for Peace in the Middle East (1948-95) War broke out between Israel and its neighbouring Arab countries in 1948 as a result of the declaration of independence o 14th May 1948. This angered the Arabs who invaded on the following day. The Arabs outnumbered the Israelis 80-1. In September 1970 Colonel Abdul Nasser died of a heart attack. He was succeeded by Anwar Sadat. Sadat desperately wanted peace. However, the Israelis were unwilling to negotiate, they didn't even take an Egyptian army seriously because they were so confident. In order to change the balance of power and make the Israelis negotiate, Sadat would have to launch an invasion. The Arabs were determined not to make the same mistakes as before, and so decided to co-ordinate their attacks. They prepared to go to war with the aim of achieving total surprise. Sadat ordered the 15,000 soviet technicians, who had been installing the latest SAM missile systems, to go home. Sadat wanted Jordan to join the invasion and so he went to King Hussein and told him that Israel was about to invade, however, he did not fall for this trick and so flew to Israel to warn the then prime minister, Golda Meir, she did not believe him. ...read more.


He promised that he would achieve a peace settlement within 12 months. Initially he favoured talks with Syria, but again the talks failed because Syria would only negotiate if Israel gave back the Golan Heights. Rabin then turned hi attention to the secret talks taking place in Norway between Israel and Palestine. The second reason for the signing of the peace accords was that they were being negotiated not by politicians but by academics, this meant that they focused only on the things, which they could agree on, this was known as the Gaza First Policy. The final text was known as the Oslo Accords or Declaration of Principals and they were officially signed by both sides at the White house in September 1993. Following the Black September incident the PLO went to Lebanon and ran their terrorist operations for there. They chose Lebanon because it was in a state of disarray because it was in the middle of a Civil War. The PLO got stronger and Israel began to get nervous that they would cause their county serious harm and so they invaded in 1978 when the PLO attacked an Israeli bus and 34 civilians were killed. ...read more.


Numerous attempts were made to broker peace in the Middle East, such as Camp David in September 1978, however deals were never made due to the stubbornness of both sides. The second reason is that the Israelis were incredibly determined to keep their homeland. This was due to the fact that for 1900 years the Jews had been pushed round the world and suffered terrible persecution, such as the Holocaust in the 1940s, and when they finally got hold of a homeland they were hardly going to allow it to be taken over without a fight. This leads onto the third reason, which is the pure military superiority to the Arabs, which the Israelis possessed. Not only were they better equipped, but also they were better trained and more organised, a combination of these factors resulted in an Israeli victory in all of their confrontations with the Arabs. Whether it is down to Arab incompetence or Israeli competence, the Arabs have always failed to regain the Palestinian land, even thought there were many attempts to take them back. Perhaps the closest to being a success was Sadat's attempt to shock the Israelis into agreeing to a peace settlement with the Yom Kippur War in October 1973. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE International relations 1945-1991 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE International relations 1945-1991 essays

  1. Did the PLO achieve anything using terrorism

    really have a good knowledge of the background story that was causing the violence. Therefore, many reporters went to the Middle East and saw the terrible conditions that the 1,000,000 plus Palestinian refugees were living in. The refugees had fled Israel in 1948-49, and these reports gained a lot of

  2. Why has there been conflict between Israel and her Arab neighbours since 1973?

    Arab Nations often think of the Arab - Israeli conflict as a religious conflict. Muslims against Jews, which they view as infidels. The Arab countries use religion to organise all Muslim nations against Israel. Which makes religion is also key reason for the conflict Arab - Israeli conflict.

  1. There has been a significant Palestinian refugee problem for the last fifty years. Do ...

    Therefore, it is not extremely reliable, though it should have a degree of reliability as the speech is being given to the United Nations. This source is useful as it tells us of the economic boom in Middle East and gives another perspective of who could be to blame for the refugee crisis - other Arab countries.

  2. Arab Israeli Conflict

    completely obvious tactics.. Not only did they gain half of Sinai but also Gaza, the West Bank and the Golan Heights, he also gained Palestinian areas of land in Palestine. During the 1948 and 1967 wars hundreds of thousands of Palestinians left, or were forced out of their homes and moved to neighbouring countries becoming refugees.

  1. Cold War Short Essays - Questions and Answers.

    Describe one decision made about human rights in the Helsinki Agreements 1975 (2 marks) Over 35 countries agreed that all states should respect Human Rights and also allow freedom of speech. This was particularly pleasing to the USA as it showed that the USSR was willing to sacrifice some policies to maintain detente.

  2. Cold War Summary, quotes and revision notes.

    trade ban with Cuba - Bay of Pigs Invasion 1961 - consisted of 1500 Cuban exiles aided by CIA - immediate disaster with invaders never reaching further than beach - embarrassment - tensions increased - Operation Moongose - series of CIA activitie aimed towards defeating government - Catsro turned to

  1. How successful were the PLO in promoting its cause between 1960-1980?

    Senior members of the Jordanian army were solicitous over the power of the PLO and this caused tension, something that did not portray a positive image for promoting its cause. In September 1970, vicious fighting between the PLO and the Jordanians took place, this period was known as ?Black September? due to the heavy casualties they grieved.

  2. How did the Super Powers affect the conflict in the Middle East?

    This was a change from 1948 when the Superpowers were not directly fuelling the conflict. This links to a third change, as the superpowers realised that they could not afford to create conflict between the countries in the Middle East in case it spilled over into a large scaled war.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work