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Congress of Vienna.

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Congress of Vienna The Congress of Vienna was formed in 1814 after the defeat of Napoleon and the end of over 20 years of war and civil unrest. Its main concerns were with containing France and the ideas which had been spread from the French Revolution, namely Liberty and Equality. During the previous 25 years France had pushed back its borders and its revolutionary ideology had encouraged the removal of many royal houses such as the Bourbons in France, Spain and Naples and the House of Orange in Holland. In order to restore balance in Europe the congress worked on the following four principles: legitimacy, encirclement of France, compensation and balance of power between the main European states. The Congress consisted of France's main enemies Prussia, Britain, Russia and Austria however with the return of a Bourbon Monarchy to power in France, Talleygrand was allowed to represent France after the replacement of a monarch to power, and was able to convince the congress that restoration France should be regarded as a major power with legitimate say in Europe. ...read more.


The German confederation consisted of 39 states and four free cities. A "loosely-framed parliament"2 was formed for the Confederation although it was essentially meaningless as Austria had a total of 17 votes whereas Prussia, Saxony, Bavaria, Hanover and Wuttemburg had only 4 a piece and the Confederation was always ruled by an Austrian. This placed Austria and Metterninch in a powerful role for the maintenance of the congresses boarders and ideology; which was challenged for the next 40 years In order to reduce the power of France and provide a balance of power in Europe many changes were made which provided a protective belt of states around France to make future aggression more difficult and through compensation the congress ensured that no one important power felt hard done by from the redrawn borders. Sardinia gained Nice and Savoy, the Netherlands and Belgium formed the United Netherlands, Wuttemburg gained surrounding land and Switzerland became neutralised under international guarantee. ...read more.


The rebellions against the congresses work could ultimately have been postponed, however due to right-wing traditionalist nature of the representatives and their keenness to place royalties back on to power they failed to listen to the public and did not deliver the more civilian style of government that many wanted. In Spain and Italy liberals rebelled against the miss rule of the restored Bourbon king, resulting in the army mutinying and the kings eventually creating representative governments. This lead to similar riots in Naples and Sicily and caused Metterninch to further meetings to deal with uprisings in 1820,'21 and'22. The is the role Metterninch became accustomed with as he regularly brought the powers of Europe together to deal with the problems he could foresee to the Balance of Power which the Congress of Vienna had established. "By the middle of the decade the Congress had withered to a remaining Austrian-Russia alliance in which Metterninch set the agenda and the Russians acted as the "gendarme of Europe"2 1-www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1820metterninch.html 2-Killeenroos.com/4/RESULTCV.htm . ...read more.

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