• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9
  10. 10
  11. 11
  12. 12

Describe and explain the reactions of Unionist groups to: a. The Partition Treaty of 1921.

Extracts from this document...


1.Describe and explain the reactions of Unionist groups to: a. The Partition Treaty of 1921. In 1920 the British Government had lost control of much of the South of Ireland and in the North the Protestants did not want to be part of an Ireland that was split and separated so they were supporting the British. Because neither side were achieving what they wanted the British government made the dire decision to split and divide Ireland into 2 parts * The North (Ulster) * The South (Eire) Geographically demonstrated on the following diagram: Fig I MAP DEMONSTATING THE PARTITION OF ULSTER AND EIRE In the North, the 6 counties that were, at the time the most Protestant were given their own government. In these 6 counties there was a large Catholic minority and in 2 counties there were actually more Catholics than Protestants. This government of Northern Ireland was called Stormont. Stormont had power over the North of Ireland but this state remained part of the UK. In the South the 26 counties became the Irish Free State. This was an independent country but in the beginning it remained part of the British Commonwealth. The Irish Nationalists were unhappy about the decision split Ireland but in 1921 members of Sinn Fein and the IRA went to London and agreed with the government of that time to the temporary splitting of Ireland, this was the last time a Sinn Fein leader shook hands with a British Prime minister the next time was in 1997 at the meeting of Tony Blair and Gerry Adams. The 1921 meeting resulted in a signing of a treaty agreeing to the temporary division. This treaty was known as the Partition Treaty. It was always hoped that this would be a temporary solution both the Government and the IRA hoped these issues would be resolved so that Ireland would get over its troubles and once again it would be a united country. ...read more.


The fundamental teachings of the Catholic Church that cause disagreement in today's society, that both some Catholics and Protestants take exception to are in the following subjects: * Divorce * Abortion * Contraception Living side by side, the two communities have seen the effects religion have on their neighbours, the Protestant Unionists will have witnessed many unhappy marriages, with out the option of divorce, many large families when there has not been enough money to put food on the table and the devastating effect childbirth out of marriage has had on large numbers of young catholic girls. Noel Browne in 1971 said that : "We must recognise the fears of the Northern Protestant, that in a united Ireland he would be in a minority and that he would suffer in much the same way as the Catholic minority in Ulster." He said, " There is the position of the Catholic Church, there are the rules on mixed marriages, the right to contraception and family planning and the right to divorce". The laws of the South of Ireland can be related directly to the influence of the Church. Even in recent years as the church has been critised by Catholics the original teachings are endemic in the law. As late as 1986 a referendum on divorce rejected any change in the law, it was not until 1995 that this law was overturned. These strong religious views that affect significantly the daily lives of Catholics influence the Unionists views of the effects of a united Ireland. Introduction Northern Ireland has been a focus of attention because of the violent conflict between its people. Between 1968 and 1994 over 3 thousand people were killed as a result of this conflict, this violence is all about one simple question: ' Should the North stay part of the United Kingdom or should it join the south as part of a united independent Ireland?' ...read more.


It was hoped that a way would be found to influence both the Unionists and the Nationalists to respect each other's rights and views. Unfortunately the Unionists claimed that it was the first time since partition that the British were allowing the government of the republic a say in how the North was run. Prior to the Anglo-Irish agreement the provisional Sinn Fein were gaining support, the party was winning local government seats. In 1983 Gerry Adams (pictured) defeated Gerry Fitt and a 73 percent turnout included 14 percent of the electorate voting for Sinn Fein candidates. The British government were trying to end the crisis in Northern Ireland but unfortunately the Unionists felt betrayed At the time of the agreement the leader of the UUP said 'This agreement will not bring peace, but a sword. I have to say honestly and truthfully that I have never known what I can only describe as universal cold fury' Previously the Unionists had said that they must never 'give an inch' to Nationalists demands, therefore they saw the Anglo-Irish agreement as a complete disaster, it also reinforced the idea that the British government were not to be trusted. The Unionists were the largest group in Northern Ireland and they believed that they had not been asked about the changes they thought the new powers for Dublin were a step towards British withdrawl and a united Ireland. During 1986 the Unionists tried to oust the agreement, in March of that year there was a Unionist day of action, the Unionist local councils would not work with the government. Some Protestants turned to the paramilitaries, this resulted in increasing attacks on Catholics, who then fought back during the early1990s 'tit for tat' killings were common place and the violence continued to increase, there appeared to be a stalemate in Northern Ireland and a dire violent situation. James Longworth 11k ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Northern Ireland 1965-85 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Northern Ireland 1965-85 essays

  1. What are the main differences between Republicans / Nationalists and Unionists / Loyalists?

    Also, the attitude of hardline Republicans began to change. Sinn Fein, who had been linked to the IRA in the past, decided that violence was not the answer and became committed to a more democratic campaign for peace. They encouraged cease-fires and the decommissioning f paramilitary weapons.

  2. The History of Conflict in Ireland.

    They where the true Republicans, whereas the Officials represented something which belonged to a world out there, but had nothing to do with everyday life in the streets of Belfast or Derry. The Republican movement has always identified itself as being working class because those are the people it has had to defend.

  1. I will explain how Carson, Craig and the Ulster Unionists were opposed to the ...

    great that he allowed himself and the government of the Great British Empire to be held at ransom. They felt he was betraying Unionists for party advantage and held no love nor care for the Irish nationalist or Home Rule.

  2. How did Protestant politicians explain the social, economic and political differences between Catholic and ...

    This was not good for the peace which was much needed in Northern Ireland and if all the Protestants hated and didn't want the Catholics to get in power this would mean fights and riots on the streets. Ian Paisleys views on Catholics were very extreme and here is an

  1. How accurate is it to say that the main cause of this ill feeling ...

    The long term effect was the hatred between the two religions grew worse and so did the violence. To this day the IRA members still cause trouble even thought they have supposedly given up their weapons. Another example is The Great Potato Famine.

  2. Northern Ireland Assignment Section 1: How have groups within each community tried to achieve ...

    They hold marches in honour of the victory by William of Orange over the Catholics. The UVF (Ulster Volunteer Force) and UFF (Ulster Freedom Fighters) are two illegal paramilitary organisations who support the aims of the Unionists. The Royal Ulster Constabulary was the police force of Northern Ireland and was under Army Control from 1969-1977.

  1. How Effectively did Irish Catholic and Nationalist Leaders advance their Cause in the years ...

    In 1829, they passed a Catholic Relief Act, which opened a lot of doors to Catholics. But it also dramatically reduced the electorate in Ireland by raising the county franchise from forty shilling to ten pounds, which greatly reduced O'Connell's electorate, and sharply diminished the political power of the Catholic Association.

  2. What Were the Characteristics of Ulster Unionism From the 1880's Until The Partition?

    As Mike Cronin comments in his book a history of Ireland "It is clear that in the second half of the nineteenth century unionists across the country felt threatened by talk of home rule." In Ulster especially as in severing the link with Britain and the Empire, would destroy their comparative economic wealth.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work