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Describe law and order in the late nineteenth century

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Introduction

Describe Law And Order In The Late Nineteenth Century? In the late nineteenth century, Law and Order had improved due to the Justice system and Police force being introduced. The police were relatively new, but they were beneficial to the protection of the citizens. As beforehand, there were the Bow street runners and the Thames river police force. The Bow street runners were originally set up by Sir Thomas De Veil, then was taken over by Henry and John Fielding in 1749. They introduced a new tactic of employing thief-takers 'runners' who, when a crime was commited they would report back to the magistrates to detect the culprit. This was to increase the certainity for criminals to know that they will be detected and maybe even prosecuted. The Thames river police came about when criminals started to commit crimes nearer the docks and shipping in the 1800. However, these systems didn't seem to last long as the community was in great need of a professional police force, as law and order had been lacking in organisation. The Justice system was particulary exquisite with handling cases such as, crimes of murder and treason. Although, the public seemed to believe they favoured the rich and ignored the needs of the poor. This might be due to the fact the lower class were much more likely to commit crimes, as they were so poor they had no other option. By this, the number of punishments started to increase and the extremity of torture started to expand. This is due to different people commiting different crimes (e.g pickpocketing, murder), and if they are given the wrong punishment for something minor or very serious, then it could cause a serious riot among the people and they may as well commit that same crime time and time again. There were many developments made in the late nineteenth century, until 1829 law and order had been lacking in organisation. ...read more.

Middle

This was mainly because the victim had to pay for their case to be heard, and in many circumstances the people were poor and could not afford it. Solictitors and lawyers were rarely used as the cost for them was exceedingly high. So in many cases the victim was to conduct their own case, which often became unwinable. Before 1800, a vast majority of political protests had been commited by the middle and upper class. However, in the mid-nineteenth century the working class used riots and protests to show the government their unhappiness, as they had no vote. These protest groups include Chartists, the Luddites, Swing riots and Anti-corn law league. All the public unrest on the social and economic changes, followed the Industrial revolution. Between 1810-1820 crimes rose rapidly, as it was the end of the French wars. This led to an increase in poverty and unemployment, which increased the rate of crimes as people were hungry and had no other option to turn to. This of course, led the criminal to a severe consequence they had to face up to, one was the large set of gallows known as the 'three legged mare'. This was where a number of criminals could be hanged at the same time. Public executions like this drew massive public attraction, as it was seen as entertainment of over 200,000 people, people even shut their businesses just to see innocent/guilty people die. This however, instead of decreasing crime it encouraged crime, as it was an ideal place for prostitutes, pickpockets and armed robbers. This could of easily been resisted by not having public executions but instead. still having the execution but without a public audience. However, capital punishment ended in 1868, but led to huge increase within prisons. Although this was a very popular punishment used and known, the most famous punishment was known as 'The Bloody Code'. 'The Bloody Code' was used for even the most minor crimes, which in nowadays aren't even crimes (cutting down trees) ...read more.

Conclusion

They were forced to work from dawn to dusk at backbreaking tasks. If disobeyed, they were usually whipped, chained in ions or sometimeds even executed. However, after a while transportations became to expensive for the government to persue. Government looked for cheaper solutions to the criminal problems at home. Also, legal settlers in Australia resented having the prisoners sent to them. The government remembered the rebellion of the American colonies and decided to end the system. The last transportation took place in 1868, but only a small proportion of prisoners had been sent to Australia since gold was discovered there in 1851. They came to the decision of Australia because it was an unknown place at the edge of the world. This imparticular would frighten the public, as they wouldn't know were they were heading to. Another reason to consider for the decision of Australia, was that it would help Britain to claim Australia as part of there empire and to build up a control over the region. To stop France and other rivals gaining whatever resources Australia had. In conclusion, law and order in the late nineteenth century needed alot of improvements, however there were many improvements compared to what it once was. The punishments grew to be alot harsher, which led people to stop committing crimes until prisons were introduced and crimes again increased as many people thought that prisons were nicer than their own homes. Also, law and order in the late nineteenth century led to regulating the Metropolitan police force due to one man named Sir Robert Peel making the decision to re-organising how London was policed. However, the police were seen as favouring the rich and ignoring the needs of the poor, which led to more petty crimes as the lower class wanted to seek revenge on the police force. The expected role of the police was to prevent not solve crime. Lack of training led to some crimes increasing. Their poor reputation led to bring little change to make law and order more successful. aimee brophy ...read more.

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