• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Describe the aims, tactics and leaders of the opposition groups to apartheid. What were the similarities and differences between them?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Describe the aims, tactics and leaders of the opposition groups to apartheid. What were the similarities and differences between them? Apartheid was established in South Africa in 1948 by the National Party, who came to power in 1948. It ended in 1994. The first anti-apartheid group listed is the ANC (the African National Congress). The ANC was formed in 1912 to defend freedom rights and privileges of all African people under the 'Freedom Charter' of 1955: multi racial, one adult one vote, socialist sympathies. Its prominent leaders were Nelson Mandela, Walter Sisulu, Oliver Tambo and Albert Lutuli. Its major demonstrations include: * The 1952 Defiance Campaign. * MK's 1960's attacks on oil refineries and power stations. * The 1983 bombing of Air Force HQ. * The 1984 attack on dockyards in Durban. Nelson Mandela was born in Thembuland in Transkei in 1918. In 1940, he and Oliver Tambo were expelled from Fort Hare University for taking part in a student strike. He left for Johannesburg where he became a mine policeman. He met Walter Sisulu, who helped him become a lawyer. He set up the ANC Youth League in 1944 and took a leading part in the Defiance Campaign against apartheid in 1952. Nelson Mandela became well known for his skill as a lawyer, and the speeches he gave during a trial for High Treason, which lasted from 1956 to 1961. ...read more.

Middle

Albert Lutuli was one of the 156 people put on trial for high treason in 1956. He publicly burnt his pass book after the Sharpeville Massacre. Lutuli received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1961, and was killed in a railway accident six years later. The second anti-apartheid group listed is the PAC (the Pan African Congress). The PAC split from the ANC and was formed in 1959 with the aim of a government of South Africa by black Africans. Its prominent leader was Robert Sobukwe. Its major demonstrations include: * The 1960 Sharpeville anti-pass law campaign (69 demonstrators killed, 180 wounded) Robert Sobukwe was born in 1924. Sobukwe joined the ANC Youth League in 1947, and became a language teacher at the University of Witwatersrand in 1954. Robert wasn't happy about the influence of Indians, communists and white liberals in the ANC. In 1959 he left the ANC and created the PAC. In 1960, Sobukwe was arrested for leading the PAC protest against Pass Laws, which resulted in the Sharpeville Massacre. He was imprisoned for 3 years in prison in the Transvaal, and 6 more years on Robben Island. When he was released, he was banned from politics. Sobukwe died of cancer in 1978. The third anti-apartheid group listed is the SASO (the South African Student's Organisation). The SASO was formed in 1969 with the aim to promote ideas of black consciousness. ...read more.

Conclusion

The fourth anti-apartheid group listed is the UDF (the United Democratic Front). The UDF was formed in 1983, and followed the aims of the Freedom Charter. It also opposed elections to new community councils in 1983 and new Parliament in 1984, which still excluded black people. Its prominent leader was Albertina Sisulu. Its major demonstrations include: * 1984 - Involvement in a major rebellion in the townships of the Vaal triangle which spread throughout 1985 The groups listed above all wanted everyone to have the right to vote. They also wanted a fair and more equal society, as well as supporting Nelson Mandela's release from prison. The ANC and UDF supported the Freedom Charter. However, different ideals, aims and beliefs caused conflict - which was encouraged by the government. The ANC wanted a multi racial government, economic sanctions and supported the Freedom Charter. This caused conflict with the PAC who wanted a black government, and Inkatha, who opposed the sanctions and wanted to work with white businesses. The ANC was also criticized by Inkatha because of its guerrilla attacks, and the ANC in turn criticized Inkatha's leader Buthelezi for his willingness to work with white businesses. Conflicts continued all the way until the end of apartheid, aided by the government - and its alleged lending of weapons to the PAC for fighting against other parties. Turner 4 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE History Projects section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE History Projects essays

  1. Stalin and Hitler: Differences and Similarities

    Communist, is a very important difference, because this caused their hate against each other, what further probably prevented even more problems. Hitler killed millions of Jews, and other "non-Aryans," while Stalin caused the death of millions of peasants, which died because of starvation - so on both sides millions of people died, because of the political ideas of their dictators.

  2. The end of Apartheid

    He also managed to protest against apartheid while inside by not giving up to any of the government demands, a good example of this was when the government offered Mandela freedom numerous amounts of time as long as he would stop the anti-Apartheid campaigns which he refused to do and remained in prison.

  1. Am I not a Man and a brother?

    Clever Master John would never let that to happen, it is the fears that continue slavery for more than two centuries, nearly three and who knows what the future will be like? The fears, fearing you could be betrayed by anyone at anytime; fearing you could be whipped at anytime

  2. Research Paper on Apartheid.

    More than any other single technological advancement; the computer fostered the concentration of administrative power in the hands of Africa's white elite (NARMIC 1982). Nonetheless, the discussion of media technologies will occupy only a small part of my research. Much of my research will be focused on the effects of the implementation of Apartheid by the whites and blacks (coloured)

  1. How Were The Roman Army Superior In Weaponry, Armour And Tactics To The Celts?

    This formation was very successful during sieges of Roman hilltops and is a classic example of how the Romans advocated the use of ranks and formation 'the arrangement (testudo) is so incredibly strong (Dio Cassius, History)' In contrast the Celts took pride in appearing strong and muscular.

  2. Was The Leadership Of Nelson Mandela The Main Reason For The Ending ...

    Source B6 is a contemporary source with its origin being Time magazine where F.W De Klerk, the former South African president states how Mandela a very significant figure within South African history, should be remembered. This source supports the view that the leadership of Nelson Mandela was the main reason why apartheid ended.

  1. Using sources, who or what was most responsible for the ending of Apartheid?

    The purpose of the photograph maybe to advertise and act as propaganda to congregate more proponents. Also, it could be to gain international support and loyalty, by accentuating his potential and brilliance to stop the Apartheid. This source duly supports the notion that Mandela was the essential motive and instigator of the ending of Apartheid.

  2. The Tactics of William Wallace and Andy Murray in Scotland's Wars Against England.

    This was one of several rebellions taking place across Scotland, including several Scottish nobles and Andrew Murray in the north. The uprising suffered a blow when the nobles submitted to the English at Irvine in July. Wallace and Murray were not involved, and continued their rebellions.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work