• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Did Serbia benefit from the Balkan Wars?

Extracts from this document...


DID SERBIA BENEFIT FROM THE BALKAN WARS? The 20th century arrived with momentous events in the making or on the horizon. The Balkan peoples were in stages of uneven development. Those that had a state, such as the Serbs, were a powerful magnet for their brothers who were living under foreign rule, much to the discomfort of Austria-Hungary, which had a large Slav population within its borders. Those that did not have a state, such as the Albanians, were still attempting to begin the process of nation building. Ten years of almost continuous war began with the onset of the Balkan Wars in October 1912 and lasted - at least for Serbia - through World War I and to the resolution of the status of Albania in May 1922. This decade was decisive both in shaping the modern Serbian state and in forming Serb national consciousness. And as a result of the "first serious fighting in Europe since the fall of Plevna in 1877"1, the Balkan Wars impact was significant in shaping the eventual outcome of the Balkans after the First World War. Since March of 1912, Bulgaria and Serbia had conducted secret negotiations under the guidance of the Russian Tsar to formulate a military alliance to rid the Balkans of the last vestiges of Turkish domain: Thrace, Macedonia, and the four vilayets of Albania. Turkey's military engagement with Italy over Tripoli, along with its difficulty in suppressing the Albanian and Arab revolts within the Empire, and as J Lampe puts it 'Ottoman vulnerability'2, signalled to these two rivals that circumstances proved ripe to expand their kingdoms once the Turks were fought and banished. ...read more.


Later in the month, representatives of the belligerents and the major European powers met in London to decide the Balkan question. "The Balkan Wars should have finished at the London Conference in January 1913. But the humiliation of the Turkish army re-ignited the bitter domestic struggle in Istanbul between the Liberals and the CUP."3 The Turks rejected the peace conditions demanded by the Balkan states, the chief sticking point being Adrianople, and the conference ended in failure on January 6, 1913. On January 23, a successful coup d'�tat brought an extreme nationalist grouping called the 'Young Turks' to power in the Ottoman Empire, and within a week fighting resumed. Again the allies were victorious: Io�nnina fell to the Greeks and Adrianople to the Bulgarians. Under a peace treaty signed in London on May 30, 1913, the Ottoman Empire lost almost all of its remaining European territory, including all of Macedonia and Albania. Albanian independence was insisted upon by the European powers, and Macedonia was to be divided among the Balkan allies. After the conclusion of hostilities Serbia showed intentions of annexing a large part of Albania, in order to gain an outlet on the Adriatic, but this step toward a "Greater Serbia" was opposed by Austria-Hungary and Italy and by the Albanians, who had proclaimed their independence. Dissatisfied with these terms, Serbia demanded of Bulgaria a greater share of Macedonia. However, Bulgaria refused to recognize the Serbian claim to certain Bulgarian-held portions of Macedonia. On June 1, 1913, Greece and Serbia concluded an alliance aimed against Bulgaria. ...read more.


The Balkan Wars profoundly influenced the subsequent course of European history. By creating a strong and ambitious Serbia, the peace settlements engendered fear and anti-Serbian sentiment in neighbouring Austria-Hungary. The dismantling of the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria created equally dangerous tensions in south-eastern Europe. These conditions greatly intensified the contemporary forces in shaping a general European conflict. The Balkan Wars prepared the way for World War I by satisfying some of the aspirations of Serbia and thereby giving a great impetus to the Serbian desire to annex parts of Austria-Hungary; by alarming Austria and stiffening Austrian resolution to crush Serbia; and by giving causes of dissatisfaction to Bulgaria and Turkey. "In Serbia and Montenegro the result of the two successive Balkan Wars, though these had exhausted the material resources of the two countries, was a justifiable return of national self-confidence and rejoicing such as the people, humiliated and impoverished as it had habitually been by its internal and external troubles, had not known for very many years. At last Serbia and Montenegro had joined hands. At last Old Serbia was restored to the free kingdom."8 Therefore, the result was the impetus desired by Serbia for so long to finally try to fulfil her long term aim - that of unification of South Slavs one way or another. She had gained very crucial territories including Kosovo, and other states such as Bosnia - Herzegovina and other ethnic groups such ass the Croats and the Slovenes took great pleasure in watching the old Empires of The Habsburgs and the Ottomans fall to pieces. It stimulated further ethic nationalism and created such a vibe for Pan-Slavism and unification, that could not be quelled again by any Great Power. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE International relations 1900-1939 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE International relations 1900-1939 essays

  1. The First World War was the result of a badly mismanaged Balkan Crisis in ...

    With Germany against her and Britain and France unprepared to help her, Russia knew she would have to back down. The result of the crisis was that Russo-German relations were destroyed and Russia began to rebuild her weakened armed forces to keep this humiliation from happening again.

  2. Historical significance of two world wars

    Under the principle of national self-determination, Germany should have the right to union with Austria but it is banned. Yet, this was not the least. The harshest term was Germany had to bear the sole responsibility for causing the war.


    He soon got a reputation as a liberal, non-revolutionary politician. In 1850 he was appointed Minister of Agriculture, Commerce and the navy. Cavour then put his economic beliefs into reality by making free trade treaties with France, Britain, Belgium and even Austria.

  2. '"The FirstWorld War was the result of a badly mismanaged Balkan crisis in the ...

    The naval race was originally supposed to act as a deterrent of war between Britain and Germany. It was clear that this event of the naval race prevented England and Germany joining the alliance, as there was so much rivalry between the two countries on this matter.

  1. "The FirstWorld War was the result of a Badly Mismanaged Balkan Crisis In The ...

    The rivalry began after 1878 when Serbia was formed. At the time Austria wanted an influence in the Balkans to expand its empire. It failed many times. This also increased its desire to unite fellow Slavs something, which Russia had also longed to do for a long time. Serbia wanted to extend its power in the Balkans and south-

  2. To what extent did nationalism within the Austria-Hungarian Empire contribute to the outbreak of ...

    Most of Bismarck's political energy had been aimed at not so much finding allies for Germany but in avoiding having a combination of enemies facing her. He considered that this was most effectively achieved by creating mutual aversions amongst the other powers.

  1. The Congress of Vienna

    - Nationalism had developed from Liberalism. - In the 19th century, due to the development of communication, transportation and the growth of population, people demanded for: * A. Asked for national unification in order to strengthen themselves. * B. Unified themselves to compete with other countries.

  2. "The First World War was the result of a badly mismanaged Balkan Crisis in ...

    been attacked By Britain through the Straits and needed the right to send her warships through the Straits into the Mediterranean. Russia also had a political and ideological motive. The Russian Government was influenced by the Pan Slav movement, which aimed to liberate and unite all Christian Slav people under Russian protection.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work