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Discord and disunity.

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Discord It is possible to live together in harmony despite differences in race, language and religion. However, it is important to be relentlessly vigilant against the forces of divisiveness in a multi-racial and multi-cultural society Discord and disunity (Sri Lanka and Northern Ireland) -different causes of conflicts -manifestations of conflicts -repercussions on social and economic development Sri Lanka (previously Ceylon) (SL) Citizenship Rights -Ceylon Citizenship Act (Nov 15, 1948) said that only those born in SL or plantation workers whose father and grandfather were born in SL could qualify for citizenship -British only began using Tamil plantation workers in SL less that 50 yrs ago, therefore, many Tamils found themselves stateless and denied basic rights like voting -1964, India promised to allow 525000 Tamil plantation workers to return to India over a 15 yr period and SL agreed for the rest to be granted citizenship, but SL did not carry this out in full & many Tamils remained stateless Jobs in the Government Service -British united SL in 1815 and introduced English as the national lang. -most administrative positions were filled by English-educated Tamils (British had colonialised India long before) even though they were a minority (improportionate) -Sinhalese majority were disadvantaged as they could not read or write English well Sinhala-Only language policy (1956) -Don Stephen Senanayake, a highly respected devout Sinhalese Buddhist dedicated to parliamentary democracy, was the prime minister when SL was given independence in 1947--- United National Party (UNP) ...read more.


Northern Ireland Divided Loyalties -majority Protestants and Unionists---Christians separated from Roman Catholic Church in 16th Century and pple who want to remain part of Great Britain -minority Roman Catholics and Nationalists---Christians with the Pope as religious leader and pple who want to be independent from UK and part of Irish Republic History -before 12th century, N. Ireland & Republic of Ireland were 1 country called Ireland -12th century, Ireland conquered and colonized by England -1690, Catholic, King James II of England, had to flee to the north of Ireland when he failed to force the Catholic religion on the Protestants in England -tried to defeat local Protestants with his army but was soon defeated by new Protestant, King of England, William of Orange (Battle of Boyne) -during English rule, English landlords in Ireland brought in Protestant Scottish and English to increase Protestant pop, pushing out many local Irish Catholic farmers -N. part of Ireland became predominantly Protestant -Irish fought against Scottish & English settlers without success & lives were lost -1800, Ireland became part of UK but hostilities did not end-in late 1800s, some local Irish demanded Home Rule (Irish cld make own laws concerning local issues which Britain wld keep control of matters like foreign affairs) & fighting broke out -1921, Ireland divided into 2, N. part largely Protestant n part of UK, S. ...read more.


Ireland wld remain part of UK -referendum held in May to see if voters supported the Good Friday Agreement (GFA) 71% of voters in N. Ireland and 94% in Republic of Ireland said 'yes' to the GFA -violence continues however, in 1999, a car bomb was detonated in a town sq at Omagh, killing 28 --'Real IRA', a splinter grp of IRA against GFA, claimed responsibility ---there is much to be done before peace can return to N. Ireland The Real Problem Irresponsible political power politicisation of racial/religious issues, using race/religion as tools/ weapons-including investing in the interests of certain grps to further political power. Consequences Destruction of national unity and sense of belonging * vunerable to foreign threats * stronger bonds within communities Violence/ Riots � casualties� destruction of property� unstable social situation (e.g. refugees) * deters investors� unemployment � � crime rates �� worsen situation * tourism v� economy adversely affected (inflation, corruption, poor infrastructure)� unemployment � (vicious cycle) * Foreign intervention (Interference) * India helped to train Tamils and even provided weaponry (worsened problem) * C thought BA was biased against them - but BA was attacked by IRA and found it hard to remain neutral, therefore retaliating by searching C homes etc. Possible Solutions a) foreign intervention by a neutral party to prevent corrupt officials from manipulating political agendas --blow up issues b) proportional rep. in govt.(population %) vs proportionate rep. (party votes%) c) media/ education -downplay sensitivities -censorship d) peace talks (UN) ...read more.

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