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Discord and disunity.

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Introduction

Discord It is possible to live together in harmony despite differences in race, language and religion. However, it is important to be relentlessly vigilant against the forces of divisiveness in a multi-racial and multi-cultural society Discord and disunity (Sri Lanka and Northern Ireland) -different causes of conflicts -manifestations of conflicts -repercussions on social and economic development Sri Lanka (previously Ceylon) (SL) Citizenship Rights -Ceylon Citizenship Act (Nov 15, 1948) said that only those born in SL or plantation workers whose father and grandfather were born in SL could qualify for citizenship -British only began using Tamil plantation workers in SL less that 50 yrs ago, therefore, many Tamils found themselves stateless and denied basic rights like voting -1964, India promised to allow 525000 Tamil plantation workers to return to India over a 15 yr period and SL agreed for the rest to be granted citizenship, but SL did not carry this out in full & many Tamils remained stateless Jobs in the Government Service -British united SL in 1815 and introduced English as the national lang. -most administrative positions were filled by English-educated Tamils (British had colonialised India long before) even though they were a minority (improportionate) -Sinhalese majority were disadvantaged as they could not read or write English well Sinhala-Only language policy (1956) -Don Stephen Senanayake, a highly respected devout Sinhalese Buddhist dedicated to parliamentary democracy, was the prime minister when SL was given independence in 1947--- United National Party (UNP) ...read more.

Middle

Northern Ireland Divided Loyalties -majority Protestants and Unionists---Christians separated from Roman Catholic Church in 16th Century and pple who want to remain part of Great Britain -minority Roman Catholics and Nationalists---Christians with the Pope as religious leader and pple who want to be independent from UK and part of Irish Republic History -before 12th century, N. Ireland & Republic of Ireland were 1 country called Ireland -12th century, Ireland conquered and colonized by England -1690, Catholic, King James II of England, had to flee to the north of Ireland when he failed to force the Catholic religion on the Protestants in England -tried to defeat local Protestants with his army but was soon defeated by new Protestant, King of England, William of Orange (Battle of Boyne) -during English rule, English landlords in Ireland brought in Protestant Scottish and English to increase Protestant pop, pushing out many local Irish Catholic farmers -N. part of Ireland became predominantly Protestant -Irish fought against Scottish & English settlers without success & lives were lost -1800, Ireland became part of UK but hostilities did not end-in late 1800s, some local Irish demanded Home Rule (Irish cld make own laws concerning local issues which Britain wld keep control of matters like foreign affairs) & fighting broke out -1921, Ireland divided into 2, N. part largely Protestant n part of UK, S. ...read more.

Conclusion

Ireland wld remain part of UK -referendum held in May to see if voters supported the Good Friday Agreement (GFA) 71% of voters in N. Ireland and 94% in Republic of Ireland said 'yes' to the GFA -violence continues however, in 1999, a car bomb was detonated in a town sq at Omagh, killing 28 --'Real IRA', a splinter grp of IRA against GFA, claimed responsibility ---there is much to be done before peace can return to N. Ireland The Real Problem Irresponsible political power politicisation of racial/religious issues, using race/religion as tools/ weapons-including investing in the interests of certain grps to further political power. Consequences Destruction of national unity and sense of belonging * vunerable to foreign threats * stronger bonds within communities Violence/ Riots � casualties� destruction of property� unstable social situation (e.g. refugees) * deters investors� unemployment � � crime rates �� worsen situation * tourism v� economy adversely affected (inflation, corruption, poor infrastructure)� unemployment � (vicious cycle) * Foreign intervention (Interference) * India helped to train Tamils and even provided weaponry (worsened problem) * C thought BA was biased against them - but BA was attacked by IRA and found it hard to remain neutral, therefore retaliating by searching C homes etc. Possible Solutions a) foreign intervention by a neutral party to prevent corrupt officials from manipulating political agendas --blow up issues b) proportional rep. in govt.(population %) vs proportionate rep. (party votes%) c) media/ education -downplay sensitivities -censorship d) peace talks (UN) ...read more.

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