• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Discuss the fortunes of Germany during the Weimar Republic 1919 - 1923.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Discuss the fortunes of Germany during the Weimar Republic 1919 - 1923, under the following headings: i. Economic Developments ii. Foreign Relations; iii. Cultural Activities. (1983 Exam Question) The German economy collapsed between 1919 and 1923. Four main factors were responsible for this collapse. Firstly, the end of the war dislocated industry geared to the production of war material, while demilitarisation threw millions of ex-soldiers on to an unprepared labour market. Secondly, the reparations demanded by the Treaty of Versailles drained the country of capital which would have been required to restructure the economy; thirdly, the government's attempt to solve currency led to hyper-inflation. Paper money became worthless and so did savings. Those on regular incomes and pensions found themselves unable to make ends meet. Finally, the French occupation of the Ruhr in 1923 precipitated a general strike in that region which deprived German industry elsewhere of vital raw materials and unemployment reached ever higher levels. Within a few months, however, the work of Gustav Stresemann and his colleagues went a long way to reversing this situation. A new currency was introduced and those who had most greedily profited under inflation were penalised - up to a point. The reparations clauses of the Versailles Treaty were renegotiated and the Dawes Plan allowed for smaller annual payments as well as providing an 800 million dollar loan to redevelop German industry. ...read more.

Middle

Many of the plays of the period were directly critical of capitalism, conservatism and war and there fore unacceptable to the conservative forces which still dominated the Weimar Republic. The new art of the cinema threw up great producers and directors such as Joseph Von Sternberg and Fritz Land, but while there were some fine films such as "M", "The Blue Angel" and "The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari", most films of the time were simply vehicles of escapism. Exam tips Although it would be acceptable to go through each problem in date order in your essay, it would be much better to structure your essay by having a section on political problems, another section on economic problems and a separate section on social problems. * Political - things to do with the government and authority. * Economic - things to do with money (this would also include trade and industry). * Social - things affecting people's ordinary lives and the way different groups of people interact with each other. The problems Here is a chronological list of the problems faced by the Weimar Republic. Read through them and think about how you might group them according to political, economic and social problems. 1. Treaty of Versailles - The government had signed the Versailles Treaty even though this included Clause 231. ...read more.

Conclusion

Here are two alternatives: Maxine - It seems amazing that the Weimar republic could survive so many problems. The government faced challenges from left and right wing groups not just in 1919 and 1920 but right up to 1923. Meanwhile, the economic problems, which were bad in 1919, seemed to get worse during this period until there was a crisis in 1923. These economic problems also made the social problems worse. Out of them all, the economic problems were probably the worst and without them there would probably have been fewer social problems and less opposition to the government. Diana - In this answer I have shown that the Weimar government faced a range of problems from 1919 to 1923. There were political challenges, economic problems and social discontent yet, somehow, the republic survived. Which do you think is best, Maxine's or Diana's? Examiner's view Maxine's answer is clearly the best but this is not just because she has written more than Diana. Maxine has done more than just summarise the points she has already made; she covers the whole period and has added her own view of what was the most important of these problems, so her conclusion includes a judgement rather than just being description. The conclusion is not the place to raise an important new point - if it is important it should be in the main essay - but it should do more than just repeat what you've already said. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Germany 1918-1939 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Germany 1918-1939 essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Why was the Weimar Republic so unpopular with many Germans between 1919 and 1923?

    4 star(s)

    Some people were very upset that the Kaiser had been forced to leave. If the Weimar Republic were to be replaced again by the Kaiser Germany would have to break the treaty of Versailles, also this was a bad start for the Weimar Republic because people could blame them for the loss of the Kaiser.

  2. Weimar, 1918 - 1923

    Referenda (aka - plebiscites) These were votes by all electors to decide policy on a single issue. They could come about by two means: * The President could call one when conflict existed between the houses, or if he objected to legislation.

  1. What problems did the Weimar Republic face between 1919 and 1923?

    a place in the sun" so the loss of their colonies meant that national pride was damaged and the citizens blamed the Weimar Republic for the loss of their colonies. This meant that the Republic had less chance of pleasing the Germans and had national hatred to contend with.

  2. Why was the Weimar Republic able to survive 1919 - 1929?

    It was a futile gesture against the government and was suppressed when the government led by Ebert called on the Freikorps to crush the rebellion. Luxemburg and Liebknecht were murdered. Secondly, in March 1929 Wolfgang Kapp led the Kapp Putsch from the right.

  1. Describe the problems faced by the Weimar Republic during 1918-1923.

    towards Germany was still very hostile - and not just in France. In 1922, French and Belgium troops invaded the Ruhr; Germany's most valuable industrial area. The French and Belgium troops took over the iron and steel factories, coalmines and railways.

  2. What problems did the Weimar Republic face from 1919 to 1923, and why did ...

    Also: o RM 60,000,000 = 1 US Dollar * October 20, 1923 General Alfred Mueller marches on Saxony to prevent a communist takeover. Also: o General Otto von Lossow in Bavaria is relieved of command by Berlin; he refuses. * October 23, 1923 Communist takeover of Hamburg * October 25,

  1. History Revision Notes. Key Topic 1: The Weimar Republic 1918-1933.

    All this improved Germany?s economy: 1. Employment went up 2. Government income from taxation improved. 3. Industrial output doubles fuelled by US loans. 4. Imports and exports increased. However, there were drawbacks. The extreme political parties hated Versailles and were furious had again agreed to pay reparations?.

  2. How far was the Kapp Putsch the major reason for instability between 1919 and ...

    The Red Army was defeated by the Freikorps, who were later disbanded and went on to murder numerous socialist and communist politicians ? many of the most significant events that occurred, and caused widespread instability, can be linked back to the existence of the Treaty of Versailles, and the impact

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work