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Do these sources, and the site at Quarry Bank Mill, fully explain what working conditions were like for children in textile Mills, such as the one at Quarry Bank Mill, the sources and knowledge from your studies.

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Introduction

Do these sources, and the site at Quarry Bank Mill, fully explain what working conditions were like for children in textile Mills, such as the one at Quarry Bank Mill, the sources and knowledge from your studies. In this piece of coursework we are asked to compare the sources provided and make reasonable judgement about the reliability of the evidence in order to explain the working conditions for factory children in the 18th & 19th century. Children had always worked for their parents in the domestic system. By the 1820's & 1830's the controversy over "working conditions" had become a bitter debate involving MPs, newspapers, campaign groups and government inquiries. Employers would argue that the pauper apprentices system was offering a valuable service to the parishes. In the days of waterpower, Mills had to be placed in rural areas, where the mill would be isolated. From the mill owners' point of view there was often little alternative to pauper apprentices. It also made economic sense to employ children. Children were ideal, particularly in jobs such as cleaning up under machines or piecers. They were also very cheap to employ and low wages meant kept down the price of cotton, which was good for everyone. Firstly, I will examine all the sources provided. ...read more.

Middle

of the town for pauper children." She also describes the apprentice to the cotton masters as, "To the cotton master they (the apprentice children) were as much as his property." This clearly shows how appalling conditions were at that time. This source is very useful as it describes the conditions and many appalling conditions and shocking treatments of apprentices at that time. Dr.Gregg (Pauline Gregg) describes the factories as, "The factories themselves were generally dirty, unhealthy, ramshackle." This indeed is the total opposite from Frederick Engles extract. Frederick Engles in Source A describes Quarry Bank Mill as, "superb building... lofty airy rooms and healthy looking operatives." This shows a massive difference at Quarry Bank Mill compared to the awful conditions on other factories. Dr.Gregg describes the apprentice lodging as "long, low sheds." This clearly shows how factories (not including Quarry Bank Mill) were providing the apprentice housing. Dr.Gregg also states that the apprentices were, "free from outside supervision and regulation." This shows there was no supervision unlike Styal were there were super-intend-ants to look after the children and provide them with food. Dr.Gregg also empathises the point how apprentice were kept awake as, "suffered constant flogging." This shows how working conditions were and shows how harsh the employer was. Dr.Gregg also states about the punishment apprentices received, "punishment was hung by his wrists... legs up to avoid mutilation." ...read more.

Conclusion

It also indicates how the Children's Commission Report shows how they recorded data about child labour. This however, is the total opposite from Quarry Bank Mill. In Quarry Bank Mill, there was no physical assault done to harm the child in anyway. This source is reliable because it is a report from the Commission; however it be unreliable as it can be exaggerated. I also found another source adapted from modern History book. "Gardener and Bazley treated their workers with much kindness." This quote shows how the mill owners treated their workers. However, the source also indicates that it may not be reliable. It is from a modern history book and there is no indication that how it had collected the information. I can not comment its reliability because there is not any concrete evidence to back it up. Another factory I came across was Titus Salt. He inherited his father's company and took his place. Between 1801 and 1851 the population of Bradford grew from 13,000 to 104,000. With over 200 factory chimneys continually churning out black, sulphurous smoke, Bradford gained the reputation of being the most polluted town in England. Bradford's sewage was dumped into the River Beck. As people also obtained their drinking water from the river, this created serious health problems. There were regular outbreaks of cholera and typhoid, and life expectancy was just over eighteen years; one of the lowest in the country. YASIN PATEL ...read more.

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