• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Equality in America has changed a great deal from 1865 to 1945.

Extracts from this document...


Equality in America has changed a great deal from 1865 to 1945. Many groups of people including racial and gender groups has changed dramatically during this time period. However, African-Americans and women equalities changed the most. There have been so many different events that happened during this time in history that made such equality changes possible. Some are recognized as major historical events and others are over looked by most people but every event and accomplishment for these minority groups has made the next one possible and are all extremely important. The road for equality of African-Americans and women was long and difficult and defiantly did not stop at 1945 but is continued even today. However, this paper will focus on the events that lead to equality change in America from 1865 to 1945. Equality for African Americans has changed dramatically from 1865 to 1945. In 1865 Congress approved the Thirteenth amendment of the Constitution, which outlawed slavery in the United States. Soon after Congress established the Freeman's Bureau which provided health care, education, and technical assistance to emancipated slaves. In 1866 Congress overrode President Johnson's veto and passed the Civil Rights Act, conferring citizenship upon black Americans and guaranteeing equal rights with whites. On June 13, 1866 Congress approved the fourteenth amendment to the Constitution, guaranteeing due process and equal protection under the law to all citizens. ...read more.


In 1903 W.E.B. Du Bois's celebrated book, The Souls of Black Folk, was published. It rejected the gradualism of Booker T. Washington, calling for agitation on behalf of African-American rights. In 1905 African-American intellectuals and activists, led by Du Bois and William Monroe Trotter, began the Niagara movement. During 1906 in Brownsville, Texas on August 13, black troops rioted against segregation. On November 6, President Roosevelt discharged three companies of black soldiers involved in the riot. On February 12, 1909-the centennial of the birth of Lincoln-a national appeal led to the establishment of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, an organization formed to promote use of the courts to restore the legal rights of black Americans. In 1911 the National Urban League was organized to help African-Americans secure equal employment. On April, 11, 1913 the Wilson administration began government-wide segregation of work places, rest rooms and lunch rooms. In 1917 America entered World War 1 with 370,000 African Americans in military services-more than half in the French war zone. One of the bloodiest race riots in the nation's history took place in East St. Louis, Illinois, on July 1-3, 1917. A congressional committee reported that 40 to 200 people were killed, hundreds more injured, and 6,000 driven from their homes. Thousands of African-Americans marched down Manhattan's Fifth Avenue on July 28, 1917, protesting lynching, race riots and denial of rights. ...read more.


This group later becomes the nucleus for the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union (ILGWU). In 1913, 5,000 suffragists march in Washington DC for the women's rights movement. In 1915, a petition with 500,000 signatures in support of women's suffrage amendment is given to President Woodrow Wilson. In 1920, the 19th Amendment is ratified, allowing women the right to vote in federal elections. In 1923, Alice Paul and the National Women's Party first propose the Equal Rights Amendment to eliminate discrimination on the basis of sex. It has never been ratified. In 1928 women compete for the first time in Olympic field events. Lastly, in 1934, Florence Ellinwood Allen becomes the first women on United States Court of Appeals. Thanks to the hard work and dedication of these women and many more that followed women have earned their equality in the United States. Both of these groups of people have gained much equality during this time but there is much more to come in the future. America is supposed to be a free country but that will not be completely true until all men and women or all race and cultures are seen and treated as equals. It is so easy to read through these examples of events that make life fairer for African-Americans and women but the reality is that it took a lot of hard work, courage and lives to make these changes possible. These groups of people came a long way from 1865 to 1945. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE USA 1941-80 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE USA 1941-80 essays

  1. How far did the role and status of women change 1914 and 1928

    The second source that does not agree with the interpretation is source I. Source I shows the percentage of black people voting age registered to vote in the south.

  2. Did life Improve for Black people after 1865? The Civil war finally ended in ...

    Children were also taken to these so called events because it was an important part of their education. One of the headlines in a newspaper read; 'Hartfield (a black man) will be lynched at 5'o'clock this afternoon!' people liked to have their photos taken with the victims while they were being lynched.

  1. Free essay

    Did the civil rights deal achieve a great deal in the 1950-1960's?

    It does not include anything about voting or travelling. Source E talks about the achievements of black campaigns by Martin Luther King. "It is most significant that this progress occurred with minimum loss of life" The source is biased because Martin Luther King only talks about the good and non-violent achievements.

  2. With what truth can it be asserted that the U.S.A was the land of ...

    The Presidents of the U.S in the following period failed to enforce the rights that the Amendments had granted to minorities. It became clear that through the 20th century not every citizen of America were given the right to vote.

  1. Civil Rights in America 50s & 60s

    there was no law to partner it and prevent the obstruction of these people from being able to cast their truthful and honest votes. Many people were forced into placing votes for parties that they did not support, and in many places blacks were simply obstructed from being able to

  2. "Religion's are notorious for promoting Racial Segregation". Discuss with reference to one specific historical ...

    This lasted for 156 dyas, 69 people were left dead and 187 wounded.This wielded the Public safety act and stated the white regime had no intention of changing the unjust laws of apartheid. All the victims were black, and most shot in the back, suggesting they were running away.

  1. The United States or Divided States of America?

    They also gained publicity from using the freedom of movement in demonstrations, and marches, especially the Washington March, where Martin Luther King led thousand of blacks to the Washington Memorial and gave the famous 'I have a dream' speech. Also, sit-ins and freedom-riders used the freedom of movement when campaigning.

  2. The Nationalist Option And Its Consequences on the Movement Towards Equality.

    For Harper and later generations of blacks, uplift would be epitomized by the quest of blacks for literacty, higher education, power, and self-reliance (Gaines, 1996, p.37). As Harper's writing suggests, uplift ideology was influenced by social Darwinist theory of the time.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work