• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Equality in America has changed a great deal from 1865 to 1945.

Extracts from this document...


Equality in America has changed a great deal from 1865 to 1945. Many groups of people including racial and gender groups has changed dramatically during this time period. However, African-Americans and women equalities changed the most. There have been so many different events that happened during this time in history that made such equality changes possible. Some are recognized as major historical events and others are over looked by most people but every event and accomplishment for these minority groups has made the next one possible and are all extremely important. The road for equality of African-Americans and women was long and difficult and defiantly did not stop at 1945 but is continued even today. However, this paper will focus on the events that lead to equality change in America from 1865 to 1945. Equality for African Americans has changed dramatically from 1865 to 1945. In 1865 Congress approved the Thirteenth amendment of the Constitution, which outlawed slavery in the United States. Soon after Congress established the Freeman's Bureau which provided health care, education, and technical assistance to emancipated slaves. In 1866 Congress overrode President Johnson's veto and passed the Civil Rights Act, conferring citizenship upon black Americans and guaranteeing equal rights with whites. On June 13, 1866 Congress approved the fourteenth amendment to the Constitution, guaranteeing due process and equal protection under the law to all citizens. ...read more.


In 1903 W.E.B. Du Bois's celebrated book, The Souls of Black Folk, was published. It rejected the gradualism of Booker T. Washington, calling for agitation on behalf of African-American rights. In 1905 African-American intellectuals and activists, led by Du Bois and William Monroe Trotter, began the Niagara movement. During 1906 in Brownsville, Texas on August 13, black troops rioted against segregation. On November 6, President Roosevelt discharged three companies of black soldiers involved in the riot. On February 12, 1909-the centennial of the birth of Lincoln-a national appeal led to the establishment of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, an organization formed to promote use of the courts to restore the legal rights of black Americans. In 1911 the National Urban League was organized to help African-Americans secure equal employment. On April, 11, 1913 the Wilson administration began government-wide segregation of work places, rest rooms and lunch rooms. In 1917 America entered World War 1 with 370,000 African Americans in military services-more than half in the French war zone. One of the bloodiest race riots in the nation's history took place in East St. Louis, Illinois, on July 1-3, 1917. A congressional committee reported that 40 to 200 people were killed, hundreds more injured, and 6,000 driven from their homes. Thousands of African-Americans marched down Manhattan's Fifth Avenue on July 28, 1917, protesting lynching, race riots and denial of rights. ...read more.


This group later becomes the nucleus for the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union (ILGWU). In 1913, 5,000 suffragists march in Washington DC for the women's rights movement. In 1915, a petition with 500,000 signatures in support of women's suffrage amendment is given to President Woodrow Wilson. In 1920, the 19th Amendment is ratified, allowing women the right to vote in federal elections. In 1923, Alice Paul and the National Women's Party first propose the Equal Rights Amendment to eliminate discrimination on the basis of sex. It has never been ratified. In 1928 women compete for the first time in Olympic field events. Lastly, in 1934, Florence Ellinwood Allen becomes the first women on United States Court of Appeals. Thanks to the hard work and dedication of these women and many more that followed women have earned their equality in the United States. Both of these groups of people have gained much equality during this time but there is much more to come in the future. America is supposed to be a free country but that will not be completely true until all men and women or all race and cultures are seen and treated as equals. It is so easy to read through these examples of events that make life fairer for African-Americans and women but the reality is that it took a lot of hard work, courage and lives to make these changes possible. These groups of people came a long way from 1865 to 1945. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE USA 1941-80 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE USA 1941-80 essays

  1. Did life Improve for Black people after 1865? The Civil war finally ended in ...

    Children were also taken to these so called events because it was an important part of their education. One of the headlines in a newspaper read; 'Hartfield (a black man) will be lynched at 5'o'clock this afternoon!' people liked to have their photos taken with the victims while they were being lynched.

  2. The split in the 19th century - Woman suffrage movement

    Supported by the combined force of blacks and women, the AERA faced its first major challenge when, in March 1867, the Kansas legislature put two popular referenda on the November election ballot, one for black suffrage, the other for woman suffrage.

  1. The Changing Role and Status of Women since 1945

    Women in the 1950s and '60s were finding themselves in a situation they had already found themselves in just 20 years earlier: again they had to give up what they had enjoyed during the war, having a job. Sources D and E are symptomatic of the mood at the

  2. Civil Rights in America 50s & 60s

    Shortly after the events of Little Rock High School and also helped by the events witnessed in the Bus Boycotts and famous legal trials, President Eisenhower put the 1957 Civil Rights Act into affect, the first of such acts which considered the rights of black people to vote.

  1. How far did the role and status of women change 1914 and 1928

    I think that sources E and F are quite reliable to an historian studying the civil rights movement in the USA in the 1960's. This is because black people gave both of the statements/speeches and why would they say that they are making progress when they aren't.

  2. Free essay

    Did the civil rights deal achieve a great deal in the 1950-1960's?

    It does not include anything about voting or travelling. Source E talks about the achievements of black campaigns by Martin Luther King. "It is most significant that this progress occurred with minimum loss of life" The source is biased because Martin Luther King only talks about the good and non-violent achievements.

  1. The scope of this investigation is to discover the Rastafari movement mainly by considering ...

    peace speech into this song. The purpose of the song is to spread out the message of the intentions and perceptions of the Rastafari by using the words of H.I.M (His Imperial Majesty) Haile Selassie. The message contains that, as long as skin colour of the man is of significance,

  2. The Situation of African-Americans in America.

    It was not common to call a slave other than by his first name or as "boy". After the Civil War and the Emancipation Declaration, which abolished slavery, everything at first seemed to change. But the Reconstruction period failed, although Blacks were now called "citizens", they still had no civil rights.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work