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Equality in America has changed a great deal from 1865 to 1945.

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Equality in America has changed a great deal from 1865 to 1945. Many groups of people including racial and gender groups has changed dramatically during this time period. However, African-Americans and women equalities changed the most. There have been so many different events that happened during this time in history that made such equality changes possible. Some are recognized as major historical events and others are over looked by most people but every event and accomplishment for these minority groups has made the next one possible and are all extremely important. The road for equality of African-Americans and women was long and difficult and defiantly did not stop at 1945 but is continued even today. However, this paper will focus on the events that lead to equality change in America from 1865 to 1945. Equality for African Americans has changed dramatically from 1865 to 1945. In 1865 Congress approved the Thirteenth amendment of the Constitution, which outlawed slavery in the United States. Soon after Congress established the Freeman's Bureau which provided health care, education, and technical assistance to emancipated slaves. In 1866 Congress overrode President Johnson's veto and passed the Civil Rights Act, conferring citizenship upon black Americans and guaranteeing equal rights with whites. On June 13, 1866 Congress approved the fourteenth amendment to the Constitution, guaranteeing due process and equal protection under the law to all citizens. ...read more.


In 1903 W.E.B. Du Bois's celebrated book, The Souls of Black Folk, was published. It rejected the gradualism of Booker T. Washington, calling for agitation on behalf of African-American rights. In 1905 African-American intellectuals and activists, led by Du Bois and William Monroe Trotter, began the Niagara movement. During 1906 in Brownsville, Texas on August 13, black troops rioted against segregation. On November 6, President Roosevelt discharged three companies of black soldiers involved in the riot. On February 12, 1909-the centennial of the birth of Lincoln-a national appeal led to the establishment of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, an organization formed to promote use of the courts to restore the legal rights of black Americans. In 1911 the National Urban League was organized to help African-Americans secure equal employment. On April, 11, 1913 the Wilson administration began government-wide segregation of work places, rest rooms and lunch rooms. In 1917 America entered World War 1 with 370,000 African Americans in military services-more than half in the French war zone. One of the bloodiest race riots in the nation's history took place in East St. Louis, Illinois, on July 1-3, 1917. A congressional committee reported that 40 to 200 people were killed, hundreds more injured, and 6,000 driven from their homes. Thousands of African-Americans marched down Manhattan's Fifth Avenue on July 28, 1917, protesting lynching, race riots and denial of rights. ...read more.


This group later becomes the nucleus for the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union (ILGWU). In 1913, 5,000 suffragists march in Washington DC for the women's rights movement. In 1915, a petition with 500,000 signatures in support of women's suffrage amendment is given to President Woodrow Wilson. In 1920, the 19th Amendment is ratified, allowing women the right to vote in federal elections. In 1923, Alice Paul and the National Women's Party first propose the Equal Rights Amendment to eliminate discrimination on the basis of sex. It has never been ratified. In 1928 women compete for the first time in Olympic field events. Lastly, in 1934, Florence Ellinwood Allen becomes the first women on United States Court of Appeals. Thanks to the hard work and dedication of these women and many more that followed women have earned their equality in the United States. Both of these groups of people have gained much equality during this time but there is much more to come in the future. America is supposed to be a free country but that will not be completely true until all men and women or all race and cultures are seen and treated as equals. It is so easy to read through these examples of events that make life fairer for African-Americans and women but the reality is that it took a lot of hard work, courage and lives to make these changes possible. These groups of people came a long way from 1865 to 1945. ...read more.

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