• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Examine the extent to which theopposition to the Treaty of

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Examine the extent to which the opposition to the Treaty of Versailles explains political extremism in the Weimar republic, 1919-1923 The Treaty of Versailles formally ended the First World War and was imposed on Germany by the victorious allies. The Treaty made Germany responsible for the war, imposed reparations (financial payments), reduced the German army and deprived Germany's resources. Prior to the signing of the Treaty, in November 1918, a provisional government was set up to fill the immediate need of the political vacuum left by the abdication of the Kaiser. This new government was set up under a Social Democrat, Ebert. The signing of the Treaty was regarded by many Germans as a 'stab in the back' and the left wing politicians and new Chancellor, Ebert, who agreed to the Treaty as the 'November criminals'. Political extremism was already evident prior to the signature of the Treaty, most notably in the Sparticist rising in Berlin, November 1918. On 25 November 1918 a conference of representatives from the different stases that make up Germany met in Berlin and agreed to set up a national assembly. However, extreme left-wing groups in Germany rejected any form of democratic parliament and pressed for a revolution. ...read more.

Middle

However, the Kapp Putsch was not merely a response to the signature of the Treaty but a reflection of broader post-war circumstance, including the twin social evils of economic slump and epidemic influenza. Four and a half years of war and sacrifice had overstretched the German economy. As a result, shortages of food and fuel had rendered the population vulnerable to the influenza epidemic sweeping Europe in 1918. This influenza epidemic had a far greater effect on German mortality; 250% more deaths in Germany that year than in England. It is thought that nearly 750 000 died of a combination of flu and starvation. This figure included mainly civilians but it also included soldiers who had survived the horror of war, returned to Germany and died of disease. Many Germans sought to blame the new government for these problems; another reason why Kapp's followers felt action needed to be taken to remove from power the government. The last example of political extremism that took place in the prescribed period was the Munich Putsch, 1923. The Munich Putsch was a right-wing attempt to seize power in Munich, led by Hitler, leader of extreme right party NSDAP (or Nazi Party.) By 1923, although membership was increasing, the Nazi party had not succeeded in establishing itself outside of Bavaria (in southern Germany). ...read more.

Conclusion

Hitler faced a five year prison sentence. The factors which explain this final example of political extremism that took place in the prescribed period are also economic, like the Kapp Putsch. However, the factors each have a direct link to the Treaty of Versailles. The link comes from the failure to pay the 1923 reparations instalment stated by the Treaty of Versailles. This led to the occupation of the Ruhr by France-Belgian troops, leading to the consequent passive resistant and hyperinflation, and therefore to the Munich Putsch. In conclusion, I feel that the opposition to he Treaty of Versailles explains political extremism to a fairly large extent in the Weimar republic, 1919-1923. I believe this because from discussing the three major political extremist episodes in the prescribed period, I have recognised that the opposition to the Treaty of Versailles had direct links with two of the examples of political extremism; Kapp and Munich Putsch. Also the fact that the treaty was signed in 1919 and opposition to it was still evident in 1923 and its problems were still having an affect shows that it had a great influence. However, I have also recognised and mentioned other factors which contribute to explaining some of the examples of political extremism. These factors cannot be ignored and I feel that they could perhaps be argued to be equally as important. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE International relations 1900-1939 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE International relations 1900-1939 essays

  1. To what extent was the Treaty of Versailles justifiable?

    �Many British economist experts believed that the advent of the Nazi regime in 1933 was the consequences of the reparations imposed at Versailles.� This is a view of the contemporary critics of the Versailles treaty and this shows the flaws of the contemporary ideas that the treaty itself was to

  2. "Was the treaty of Versailles fair?"

    simply happy that the proceedings had finished so that he could return home. So what exactly did the treaty do to Germany? The terms of the Treaty of Versailles The treaty can be divided into a number of sections; territorial, military, financial and general.

  1. Versailles and Hyperinflation, Germany 1919-28.

    The more notes printed, the lower the value of the mark became. In January 1929 there was 64 marks to the dollar, but in November 1923 there was 4.2 trillion marks to the dollar! People needed a wheelbarrow to carry their daily wages!

  2. The Antarctic Treaty: When and why was the treaty formed?

    * The Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR). This convention covers an area larger than the treaty. The boundary used is the Antarctic Convergence - the zone where the cold water of the Antarctic meets warmer water, or the biological boundary between the Antarctic and the sub-Antarctic ecosystems at about 58�S.

  1. To what extent did nationalism within the Austria-Hungarian Empire contribute to the outbreak of ...

    Bulgarian crisis 1885-86) After the retirement of Bismarck - France succeeded to break out from his isolation France's loans a must in Russia's industrialization and France's friendship a perequisite if one day Russia fight with Austria over the Balkans. 1894 the Alliance of "the Beauty and the Beast" - yet an alliance for mutual understanding, without any military aims.

  2. Piedmont for a leader in establishing unity.

    Initially his forces were successful, capturing the fortress of Peschiera and winning the battle of Goito. However, he failed to pursue his advantage, which gave the Austrians time to consolidate their position and to gain reinforcements. Austria defeated Piedmont decisively on the following two occasions, at Custozza (25th July 1848).

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work