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Explain the status and position of European Jews at the beginning of the 20th Century

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At the beginning of the 20th century, the status and position of Jews in Europe varied depending on the country itself. In Russia, the Jews suffered from Persecution, and had to live in shtetls, which meant a Jewish community within a village. The Jews suffered from persecution because of their religious differences, and they suffered from great prejudice. In France and Germany, the Jews had equal rights (by law). However, in Germany, they were still not allowed privileges which most other civilians had. In France, the Jews also had equal rights, although these were not practiced by Jews because of the persecution they still faced. Russian Jews faced persecution because of their religion and not for their race. They were attacked for their religious views, and were forced to live in small Jewish communities (shtetls). Although they were next to the Christian communities, they didn't mix and would not notice each other to a certain extent). Jews had no civil rights or any political rights in law. When Nicholas II stated, and maintained, "As long as I am Tsar of Russia, the Jews shall not receive equal rights". Pogroms were created after the Jews were blamed for the assassination of Tsar Alexander II). ...read more.


By the 1940's, the Jews felt more like they were Russians.. All 3 million Jews in Russia felt they were a part of Russia, and that they were assimilated. In conclusion, the status and position of Jews meant that the treatment on the Russian Jews was harsh, but became fairer when Lenin came in to power. However, there was still discrimination against them because of their religion and language. The Russian Jews then felt that they were assimilated into Russia, and they suffered less from prejudice. Unlike Russia, the Jews of France had full rights of French citizenship. However, they were still attacked in newspapers, through articles and cartoons, along with books. Edward Drumont published one of the most famous Anti-Semitic books of the 19th century (La France Juive (The French Jews)). The book blamed every French misfortune on the Jews. When Drumont started editing the newspaper "Libre Parole", he added constant attacks on the Jews. The most famous Anti-Semitic incident in France was the Dreyfus case, where Captain Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish artillery officer in the French Army, was wrongly accused of spying for Germany. Jews were also taken out of the war zone, as the government feared they were passing information onto the enemy (Germany). ...read more.


One third of the soldiers were decorated for bravery. However, when Germany lost, anti-Semitism rose again, and Jews were blamed again for making Germany lose the war. In conclusion, the status of Jews in Germany was that they had almost full equal rights. They were treated badly because of their race, and this came to a peak around the time of the Aryan race theories and WWII. Ignoring the Anti-Semitism, Jewish people still went on to fight for Germany in the wars, which shows how much they were assimilated throughout the anti-Semitism. In conclusion, Russian Jews were attacked because of their religion, whereas in France and Germany Jews were prosecuted because of their race. In Germany, the universities developed the racial theories, and ranked all people from top to bottom - Aryans, Swedes and Norwegians at the very top, and Jews and Poles at the very bottom. These were taken aboard by Adolf Hitler, who then publicised Nazism and started World War Two, trying to exterminate all the Jews, Poles, Gypsies and Homosexuals. Russian Jews faced the most danger from the pogroms, but French Jews faced more pressure from the newspapers. This shows that Jews were happy to start off with but at the start of the 19th century, their status and position fell greatly. ?? ?? ?? ?? "Explain the status and position of European Jews at the beginning of the 20th Century" ...read more.

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