• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Explain the status and position of European Jews at the beginning of the 20th Century

Extracts from this document...


At the beginning of the 20th century, the status and position of Jews in Europe varied depending on the country itself. In Russia, the Jews suffered from Persecution, and had to live in shtetls, which meant a Jewish community within a village. The Jews suffered from persecution because of their religious differences, and they suffered from great prejudice. In France and Germany, the Jews had equal rights (by law). However, in Germany, they were still not allowed privileges which most other civilians had. In France, the Jews also had equal rights, although these were not practiced by Jews because of the persecution they still faced. Russian Jews faced persecution because of their religion and not for their race. They were attacked for their religious views, and were forced to live in small Jewish communities (shtetls). Although they were next to the Christian communities, they didn't mix and would not notice each other to a certain extent). Jews had no civil rights or any political rights in law. When Nicholas II stated, and maintained, "As long as I am Tsar of Russia, the Jews shall not receive equal rights". Pogroms were created after the Jews were blamed for the assassination of Tsar Alexander II). ...read more.


By the 1940's, the Jews felt more like they were Russians.. All 3 million Jews in Russia felt they were a part of Russia, and that they were assimilated. In conclusion, the status and position of Jews meant that the treatment on the Russian Jews was harsh, but became fairer when Lenin came in to power. However, there was still discrimination against them because of their religion and language. The Russian Jews then felt that they were assimilated into Russia, and they suffered less from prejudice. Unlike Russia, the Jews of France had full rights of French citizenship. However, they were still attacked in newspapers, through articles and cartoons, along with books. Edward Drumont published one of the most famous Anti-Semitic books of the 19th century (La France Juive (The French Jews)). The book blamed every French misfortune on the Jews. When Drumont started editing the newspaper "Libre Parole", he added constant attacks on the Jews. The most famous Anti-Semitic incident in France was the Dreyfus case, where Captain Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish artillery officer in the French Army, was wrongly accused of spying for Germany. Jews were also taken out of the war zone, as the government feared they were passing information onto the enemy (Germany). ...read more.


One third of the soldiers were decorated for bravery. However, when Germany lost, anti-Semitism rose again, and Jews were blamed again for making Germany lose the war. In conclusion, the status of Jews in Germany was that they had almost full equal rights. They were treated badly because of their race, and this came to a peak around the time of the Aryan race theories and WWII. Ignoring the Anti-Semitism, Jewish people still went on to fight for Germany in the wars, which shows how much they were assimilated throughout the anti-Semitism. In conclusion, Russian Jews were attacked because of their religion, whereas in France and Germany Jews were prosecuted because of their race. In Germany, the universities developed the racial theories, and ranked all people from top to bottom - Aryans, Swedes and Norwegians at the very top, and Jews and Poles at the very bottom. These were taken aboard by Adolf Hitler, who then publicised Nazism and started World War Two, trying to exterminate all the Jews, Poles, Gypsies and Homosexuals. Russian Jews faced the most danger from the pogroms, but French Jews faced more pressure from the newspapers. This shows that Jews were happy to start off with but at the start of the 19th century, their status and position fell greatly. ?? ?? ?? ?? "Explain the status and position of European Jews at the beginning of the 20th Century" ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE History Projects section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE History Projects essays

  1. It was the lack of buffalo that killed off the Plains Indian culture in ...

    Fourteen years after the defeat of General Custer in 1890, the Indians had become so desperate that Sitting Bull, the chief who defeated Custer gave himself up for a pardon. However he was betrayed and received no pardon, instead he was shot dead.

  2. How would you describe the emergence and meaning of Eurocentrism in relation to European ...

    Races were ranked alongside cultural and physical characteristics. Linnaeus's classification illustrates this: five groups were identified within the Homo-sapiens category. Europeans were characterised as light-skinned and governed by laws, the peoples of Asia were viewed as the sooty people and regulated by opinion.

  1. Persecution and Prejudice

    It was also known as the "Night of broken glass". It was triggered by the assassination of German diplomat Ernst vom Rath by Herschel Grynszpan, a German born Polish Jew. In a coordinated attack on Jewish people and their property, 99 Jews were murdered and 25,000 to 30,000 were arrested and placed in concentration camps.

  2. history coursework 2 - jews

    Moving on to the 1970s and racism had still not been sorted and was actually getting worse. In August 1977, the national front announced that I was going to march through the mainly black area of Lewisham in south London.

  1. Analyse the extent to which Villages across Britain have changed during the 19th and ...

    If the VCH has covered the area you are studying, it can give you a number of pointers to continue your research, but does not provide a complete history therefore it needs to be combined with alternative sources. Kelly's Directories were published for each county since the 16th century.

  2. British Recruitment WW1

    However this source does present an accurate, realistic reason as to why people sign up. The source shows the man's confidence that he will survive the war, and not come to harm and that the war is just a way of seeing the war.

  1. Nazi Germany

    Paragraph 2 (1) A Reich citizen can only be a person of German or German-related blood who proves by his attitude that he is willing and capable of serving the German people and the Reich faithfully. (2) The rights of Reich citizenship will be acquired through the granting of Reich citizenship certification.

  2. Effect of Civilians in WW2

    She obviously wasn't used to this, as she's rich. She also says that she wasn't allowed to wash her hair for four months, since she had to bring water up a hill from a village pump. This suggests that she was used to running water and obviously took it for granted.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work