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History Notes Of Singapore History Chapter 4

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Introduction

Chapter 4 - How did the British govern Singapore before WWII? 1. For how long did the British govern Singapore? 2 periods: 1819 - 1942 1942 (1942-1945 SG under Jap occupation) - 1963 *1819 - Brit. established trading settlement in SG *1824 - Brit. signed Anglo-Dutch Treaty & acquired whole of SG *1826 - Brit. combined 3 possessions, SG, Melaka & Penang into Straits Settlements, ruled as part of Brit. India by EIC (east india company) *1858 - EIC disbanded and Brit. govt took over control of British India *1867 - Straits Settlements became Crown Colony when placed under direct control of Colonial office in London. Then belonged to Brit. Queen, Queen Victoria. ** Take note of the division of power and various big sections e.g. Governor of Straits Settlements, Executive Council & Legislative Council 2. How were the locals involved in the govt? - Number of non-official members was fewer than number of officials in Legislative Council - Meant that Asian merchants who were part of non-official members were often out-voted - Hoo Ah Kay was first Asian non-official member - Pressure to increase number of non-official members finally met in 1924 when number of non-official and official members in Legislative Council were equal - Subsequently, there were more Asian members such as Dr. ...read more.

Middle

Malay and Indian policemen with no knowledge of Chinese dialects - Few people wanted to join police force because pay was low and police not equipped to deal with criminals - bribery was common - army often called in to help police maintain law & order in settlements >POLICE FORCE (after) - Thomas Dunman made 1st police commissioner in SG in 1857 - govt tried to improve police force by increasing pay of policemen - proper training was provided - more capable officials who could speak Malay & Chinese dialects were recruited - 1862, detective branch set up to look into activities of secret societies - 1906, Chinese detectives recruited to help investigations, particularly crimes linked to secret societies - 1931 detective branch renamed Criminal Investigation Department (C.I.D.) - 1903 modern methods such as finger-printing were introduced - by mid-1920s law & order had improved >CHINESE PROTECTORATE - set up to deal with problems of Chinese community - William Pickering was first protector of the Chinese (from May 1877 - 1888) & could speak many dialects such as Mandarin, Cantonese, Teochew, Hokkien & Foochow - 1st Protectorate office located at Havelock Road - all Chinese secret societies had to register with Chinese Protectorate - Pickering persuaded Chinese community to settle quarrels at Chinese Protectorate instead of going to Chinese secret societies & this weakened power of society leaders - coolie-agents & lodging houses registered with Chinese Protectorate. ...read more.

Conclusion

serve public - Quarantine law passed to prevent infectious diseases such as small pox & cholera from spreading - all ships stopped @ St. John's Island where passengers were checked for infectious diseases. Those found suffering from diseases were quarantined in separate place for some time to prevent spreading - by 1940s, public health generally improved & spread of disease greatly reduced 6. How did the Brit. govt & the Europeans view the people in SG? *Brit govt & Europeans believed they were more superior to Asians *Asians discriminated by Brit. govt & Europeans - most high-ranking officials in govt service were Euros. Well-qualified Asians not given senior or impt posts - (medical service) Asian doctors educated in Brit. universities not allowed to old senior posts in hospitals; these posts held by Brit. doctors - (transportation) railway dept discouraged Asians from travelling in first-class carriages - Asians not allowed to use dance floor or bar in public places such as hotels as these were reserved for Euros QUESTIONS TO PONDER: * What kind of problems did the British face in maintaining law & order? (elaborate on the 3 problems - Chinese secret societies, abuse of immigrants & piracy) * How did the British government and the Europeans view Asians in Singapore? (describe discrimination & provide a few examples) ...read more.

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