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History of Medecine, 19th - 20th century summary

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Fighting Disease Jenner * Edward Jenner - 1796 - tested vaccination on James Phipps * Opposition: 1. Different to what had been taught previously 2. Doctors in inoculation would lose business (Suffolk's, over 10,000) 3. Doctor from the country, not a leading doctor/ Some died of cowpox 4. Disease of an animal couldn't help humans 5. Injecting disease into the body doesn't make sense 6. Propaganda - James Gillray 1802 cartoon of humans --> cows Opposition was overcome because vaccination worked, was widely publicised and had many supporters, home and abroad. Pasteur & Koch * In 1857, Pasteur was investigating why sugar beet went sour ( a problem in the brewing industry) --> 1862, Swan neck flask heated. * In 1867, he was studying pebrine, a silkworm disease - he was able to demonstrate germs were the cause of it. The link between disease and germs had been made * 1870 - Germs, decay and disease were widely accepted - next thing to indentify particular germs * 1872, Koch studied anthrax --> 1875 he had identified the germ that caused it * Koch then investigated septicaemia (blood poisoning) ...read more.


* Koch 1890 TB - worked on animals only, pressured into releasing it by government, lost much of his credibility Industry (technology) - MICROSCOPES and chemical dyes which helped Koch War - Franco-Prussian 1870-1 - nationalism/patriotic -->rivalry which pushed each other Chance - Chamberland, discovery of attenuation/ Joseph Meister appearance Individuals - Intelligent, persistent, determined + good public speakers Communication - Koch heard of Pasteur - worldwide exposure Research - Both had capable/researched teams Paul Ehrlich & Gerhard Domagk * Magic bullet - looked for dyes that killed microbes in 1889 * 1909 - Sahachiro Hata - Salversan 606 - repeated on hundreds of animals with syphilis * Thick --> painful to inject * Condoned promiscuous lifestyles * Inspired by Ehrlich - determined to find more cures * 1935 - his daughter became ill with streptococcus - tried untested prontosil - worked * Used to cure scarlet fever + puerperal fever Penicillin * 1928 - Fleming was cleaning Petri dishes... ...read more.


Some worried surgeons were too inexperienced 2. Confusion on how much to give + side effects (Hannah Green,1848, 15yrs for a minor operation) 3. Calvinist Church --> women had to experience pain in childbirth (Bible) 4. The surgeon had total control of the patient 5. 1854, John Hall, Chief of medical staff - good to know if patient is alive and fight the pain Infection - Joseph Lister * 1846 - 1870 Black period of surgery because surgeons were more confident as the patient wasn't conscious --> Performed operations they never would have previously -->Many deaths * 1840 Ignaz Semmelweis noticed doctors went from handling dead people and delivering babies. Created a substance to wash hands with --> widely rejected as the substance he made damaged the skin * Joseph Lister, hearing about the germ theory, realised infection was killing his patients. * Noticed operation room smelt like sewers and as carbolic acid was used there, decided to spray it in the operating theatre (doctors, patient, equipment). Soaked bandages in it * Unpleasant for surgeons but in 1912 when he died mortality rates had plummeted ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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