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History of Medicine - the development of anaesthetics

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Introduction

Anaesthetics were important in the history of surgery because without the problem of pain, patients were more willing to have operations to treat their illnesses and more operations were carried out. This meant that surgeons could develop more experience. Moreover, because patients were no longer wriggling about in agony and having to be held down all the time, surgeons did not have to operate so quickly and consequently they could spend longer on the operations without making mistakes. This led to more accurate operations. In addition this also resulted in more complicated operations being carried out and surgeons gained more knowledge about difficult operations. However, the death rate was still high because until Joseph Lister developed antiseptics in the 1860s, only one of the problems of surgery had been solved. In fact the death rate actually increased because more complicated operations resulted in surgeons going deeper into the body and yet filthy conditions still existed and germs got into the wounds. This meant that many more people died of infections. In addition surgeons were still not sure about the dosage of the chemicals and how much chloroform to give patients. ...read more.

Middle

which said, "The infliction of pain has been invented by Almighty God. Pain may even be considered a blessing..." However, when Queen Victoria used chloroform during the birth of her child all opposition to anaesthetics was doomed. From that point on it became an accepted surgical practice. Lister was one of the greatest surgeons of the nineteenth century. He had researched gangrene and infection and was interested in applying science to medicine. He had read Pasteur's work on the Germ Theory in 1861 - few British doctors had bothered to do this as it was originally only published in French. When he read this he worked out that if he could find something that killed the "floating particles? then he might stand a chance of preventing infection in patients. Lister had seen carbolic spray used to treat sewage. He experimented with spraying a fine mist of carbolic spray over the wound during surgery. This limited infection. He then followed this by carefully bandaging the wound so that it would heal and not develop gangrene. His first operation was on a young boy's knee and the carbolic acid soaked bandages were kept on for four days. ...read more.

Conclusion

Opposition to anaesthetics came from a range of groups as well as for a number of reasons. Religion played a part with some people saying that pain was God's intention, whilst the Head of the Army Medical Corps objected to anaesthetics on the grounds that he preferred to see a man scream that to slumber during an operation. Some Doctors and Surgeons opposed anaesthetics at first saying that it was too risky. They did have a point at first with a number of patients dying when dosages could be far too high, but as time went on it became safe enough for even Queen Victoria to use anaesthetics during childbirth, Overall, I think that the opposition of anaesthetics was important and without this, many of the 'high tech' developments in the 20th century would not have been possible. However I think this was only one of the key steps and that the development of antiseptics was more important. This led to a greater reduction in the death rate from people dying from infection. In conclusion, until the final problem of providing replacement blood was solved, surgery was still a very risky procedure. ...read more.

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