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History question 2 pickering castle

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Introduction

There are many reasons a castle was built at Pickering. I intend to place the reasons a castle was built in a hierarchy of how important I think they are. I would say some of the reasons are of similar importance, as there would have been many reasons why a castle was built at Pickering. Although the reasons are multicausal but can be basically divided into why a castle was necessary, why the castle was built at Pickering and the domestic features of the castle. The domestic features include the chapel. The chapel was obviously built as a religious function. This suggests the Normans planned the building of the castle to be long term as well as short term, for both defending and as a place to live. And a place to worship. In the short term I think that the main role of the castle was to defend it from attackers. Evidence of this includes the marks of the portcullis left in the entranceway. A wall walk surrounds the castle and connects the towers and shell keep. Pickering is an example of a motte-and-bailey castle, first built from earth and timber by William the Conqueror in the early 12th century .It was rebuilt in stone and extended by the successors to the throne, notably Henry III and Edward II, depending on the threat posed at different times throughout history. Pickering castle was used as a base for controlling the rebellions during the change of throne. ...read more.

Middle

The only disadvantage of a wooden castle is that the wood could easily be burnt either deliberately or accidentally. In the 12th century there was no electricity and light came from hanging lamps, however they were a safety risk of their own as the holders were made of wood. The Shell keep was the first thing to be built in stone. Serfs from the village got stone from the quarry and floated it down the river on barges to the base of the castle. The advantages of a Stone castle are that it is harder to penetrate except by using gunpowder, which wasn't invented until later on. Also stone couldn't be burnt down, it was stronger than wood and showed greater power. A disadvantage was that it was really expensive. The new hall was rebuilt in 1314 for the countess Alice de Lacy, wife of Thomas, Earl of Lancaster. It was described as the Meeting Hall in Tudor surveys. This suggests that by the fourteenth century the castle was well on its way to becoming more domestic and less of a defensive settlement. In the 14th century the castle had been completely converted into stone. Gradually the Anglo-Saxons integrated with the Normans and the Castle became more peaceful. This meant there was less need to defend against the English. And the need for the number of knights decreased as the number of public increased. One of the reasons the castle is not complete is because villagers have stolen the stone for their houses. ...read more.

Conclusion

The search then began for a new King of England. Harold Godwinson was the obvious candidate as he was also the earl of Wessex and therefore had the support of most of England who would rather an Englishman took the throne rather than a foreigner. Harold came on the throne for 9 months. However all did not go to plan as Harold Hardraada invaded the north of England. Eventually Harold Hardraada was defeated at Stamford Bridge. Harold Godwinson wasn't protecting the South. William of Normandy invaded from the south claiming Edward promised the confessor the throne to him before he died. Harold Godwinson marched his weary men down to meet them and was defeated. William of Normandy became "William the Conqueror" and king of England; he was also the King of Normandy. He died in 1087. Pickering castle was first and foremost a working castle, unlike castles suck as Bolton Castle. Bolton Castle was built in the late 14th Century, when the need for defensive castles was greatly diminished. The Castle was damaged in English civil war but much of it still remains. The main use of Bolton Castle was a manor for the Scrope family. It has no separate outer walls or a keep. It has large windows made of glass. Glass was very expensive during the 12th 13th and 14th century, which means it was obviously an expensive building. Although Diate Hill Tower had a large window and a toilet which could be climbed up the king would not be expected to stay in there during attack. If necessary the King could leave through the Sally Port in Rosamunds tower. Charlotte Wiggins Ms Foden ...read more.

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