• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

History Revision Notes. Key Topic 1: The Weimar Republic 1918-1933.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

´╗┐History Revision Notes. Key Topic 1: The Weimar Republic 1918-1933. The Treaty of Versailles. The Diktat. On 11 November 1918, two days after the Kaiser had abdicated, Matthias Erzberger representing the new government, signed the armistice. The three allied leader David Lloyd George(Britain), George Clemenceau(France) and Woodrow Wilson(USA), drew up a peace treaty. The terms of the Treaty of Versailes. 1. Germany had to pay reparations to the allies ? Reparations was fixed, in 1921 at 6600 Million. 2. Germany lost all of its Colonies in Africa and the Far East was given to victorious countries as Mandates. 3. German Military forces were limited 1. The army was limited to 100,000 men and could only be used internally. 2. The Navy was limited to 6 battleships, 6 cruisers, 12 destroyers and 12 torpedo boats. No Submarines. 3. No air force was allowed. 4. The Rhineland was demilitired ? the German army was not allowed in the Rhineland, which bordered France. 1. Germany lost Land. 1. Alsace Lorraine was lost to France. 2. Posen and West Prussia were lost to Belgium. 3. Eupen and Malmedy were lost to Belgium. The Loss of Eupen and Malmedy and West Prussia divided Germany in two, cutting of East Prussia from Germany. Altogether Germany lost: About 13% of European territory and almost 50% of its iron and 15% of its Coal reserves! Dolchstoss ? The stab in the back. The treaty of Versailles was very unpopular because the German army had never been defeated in war. ...read more.

Middle

In November 1923 he cancelled the old mark and introduced a new currency, the Rentenmark. This lead to stability. Political Problems 1918-1923. Right wing and left wing. Right wing of politics: 1. Want to keep society very stable. 2. Want a strong government dominated by strong leaders. 3. Support capitalism –the private ownership of land and business. 4. Stress the Importance of the family, law and order and traditional values. 5. Are nationalists – Placing the interests of the nation over the individual. FACISM and NAZISM are extreme right wing movements. Left wing of politics: 1. Want to change society rapidly. 2. Aim to treat all people as equal and give political power to workers. 3. Oppose Capitalism. 4. Are internationalists – they stress co-operation of nations SOCIALISTS are left wing. COMMUNISM are extreme left wing movement. Violent Political Unrest. One thing that made the Weimar republic so violent was that, political parties had their own private armies. 1. They recruited mainly ex-soldiers, who were unemployed ad bitter that their government had accepted peace. 2. Left wing had its RotfrontKämpfer(Red front fighters). 3. Right wing had its Skahlhelm(Steel helmets – a veterans group). Overall between 1919-1923 there were 376 political murders, mostly of left wing or moderate politicians. However not a single right wing was convicted and executed; this shows how much the judiciary was filled with right wing. The Spartacist League ( a left wing movement) Sometimes extreme political groups try to over throw the government by force. ...read more.

Conclusion

It was also one more thing to make moderate Germans feel that the Weimar was becoming a Success. Between 1923-1929, moderate Germans regained confidence in the Weimar republic. 1. Stresemann had restored economic stability. 2. He had also regained a place for Germany on the International stage. 3. He had kept the support of moderate parties on Left and Right wing. 4. He was steering the Weimar out of its troubled early years. Economic Crisis, 1929-1932. The great depression. The Wall Street crash. In October 1919, share prices began to fall on the Wall Street stock market, in New York. Falling shares meant peoples investment fell in value. On ?Black Thursday? 24th October 1919, 13 million shares were sold. Economic effects. It was equally bad for companies that sold at home or abroad. The world wide depression was a disaster for export industries but high Unemployment meant that domestic demands for goods fell too. Unemployment raised a lot! Social and political effects. The economic collapse caused suffering. 1. The middle classes lost savings, their companies or their homes. 2. Workers became unemployed. People demanded political action, the Weimar republic failed them. Heinrich Bruning (Chancellor) proposed: 1. Raising hopes to pay the cost of Unemployment benefit. 2. Reducing Unemployment benefit to make payments more affordable. This pleased no one. Right wing parties, middle class and the wealth opposed higher taxes. Left wing parties and the working class opposed lower benefits. The coalition of parties which Bruning government depended on collapsed in 1930. Bruning could only govern by decree. Bruning resigned in 1932, leaving a dangerous power vacuum for a new leader to step in to. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Germany 1918-1939 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Germany 1918-1939 essays

  1. What problems did the Weimar Republic face from 1919 to 1923, and why did ...

    Following the failure of the Beer Hall Putsch, his imprisonment and subsequent release, Hitler focused on legal methods of gaining power The Munich (Beer Hall) Putsch occurred on the evening of Thursday, November 8 to early afternoon of Friday, November 9, 1923 when the nascent Nazi party's Adolf Hitler, the

  2. Free essay

    Why did the Weimar Republic collapse in 1933?

    Not all countries could afford American goods and they started to protect their own goods from USA imports by putting duties on them and making the prices higher. A lot of Americans were borrowing money and buying shares. All these were bad signs.

  1. Describe the key features of the Stresemann era from 1923 to 1929

    All in all this package reassured the Allies that the reparation payments would be satisfied, and also, for the Germans, the French agreed to leave the Ruhr as they thought that they could now trust they could receive their payments.

  2. Weimar, 1929 - 1933

    Perhaps the unwillingness of the political leadership to compromise caused M´┐Żller's fall from office, but compromise ideas may not have solved the problems. Historians have seen Hitler's rise to power starting with this failure to find solutions. Sir J Wheeler-Bennett "The result was parliamentary bankruptcy, the increasing discredit of democratic

  1. Why did the Weimar Republic survive the crisis of 1918 – 1923?

    The Right was very underestimated, they were the greatest threat to the Republic, but they didn't pose as much as a threat to the Republic in the years 1918 - 1923 as they did when Hitler was in power in the years 1932 - 1933.

  2. To what extent were the problems of 1919-1923 overcome by the Weimar Government by ...

    Plan was successful in re-creating a sound currency and...enabled her industry to be re-organised and her reparations payments to be met." By the end of 1924 the average wage in Germany was 10% higher than the previous year. The National Income was also increased and unemployment was reduced to one million for the first time since 1918.

  1. Germany 1916-1945 revision notes.

    The went in to get unpaid reprations either by getting factories or goods. Impacts of the Treaty Inflation is when the value of goods increases while the currency value goes down. An old soldier was hit hard by inflation because he couldn?t get wages and his only money would just lose value very quickly.

  2. Nazi Germany Revision 1918-45

    option if some sort of resistance was to be shown, but it did not help solve the problems Germany faced. Chancellor Stresemann (Aug-Nov 1923) promised to re-start reparations, he removed the old, worthless currency and introduced a new, temporary one ? the ?Rentenmark? ? to restore confidence.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work