• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

History Revision Notes. Key Topic 1: The Weimar Republic 1918-1933.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

´╗┐History Revision Notes. Key Topic 1: The Weimar Republic 1918-1933. The Treaty of Versailles. The Diktat. On 11 November 1918, two days after the Kaiser had abdicated, Matthias Erzberger representing the new government, signed the armistice. The three allied leader David Lloyd George(Britain), George Clemenceau(France) and Woodrow Wilson(USA), drew up a peace treaty. The terms of the Treaty of Versailes. 1. Germany had to pay reparations to the allies ? Reparations was fixed, in 1921 at 6600 Million. 2. Germany lost all of its Colonies in Africa and the Far East was given to victorious countries as Mandates. 3. German Military forces were limited 1. The army was limited to 100,000 men and could only be used internally. 2. The Navy was limited to 6 battleships, 6 cruisers, 12 destroyers and 12 torpedo boats. No Submarines. 3. No air force was allowed. 4. The Rhineland was demilitired ? the German army was not allowed in the Rhineland, which bordered France. 1. Germany lost Land. 1. Alsace Lorraine was lost to France. 2. Posen and West Prussia were lost to Belgium. 3. Eupen and Malmedy were lost to Belgium. The Loss of Eupen and Malmedy and West Prussia divided Germany in two, cutting of East Prussia from Germany. Altogether Germany lost: About 13% of European territory and almost 50% of its iron and 15% of its Coal reserves! Dolchstoss ? The stab in the back. The treaty of Versailles was very unpopular because the German army had never been defeated in war. ...read more.

Middle

In November 1923 he cancelled the old mark and introduced a new currency, the Rentenmark. This lead to stability. Political Problems 1918-1923. Right wing and left wing. Right wing of politics: 1. Want to keep society very stable. 2. Want a strong government dominated by strong leaders. 3. Support capitalism –the private ownership of land and business. 4. Stress the Importance of the family, law and order and traditional values. 5. Are nationalists – Placing the interests of the nation over the individual. FACISM and NAZISM are extreme right wing movements. Left wing of politics: 1. Want to change society rapidly. 2. Aim to treat all people as equal and give political power to workers. 3. Oppose Capitalism. 4. Are internationalists – they stress co-operation of nations SOCIALISTS are left wing. COMMUNISM are extreme left wing movement. Violent Political Unrest. One thing that made the Weimar republic so violent was that, political parties had their own private armies. 1. They recruited mainly ex-soldiers, who were unemployed ad bitter that their government had accepted peace. 2. Left wing had its RotfrontKämpfer(Red front fighters). 3. Right wing had its Skahlhelm(Steel helmets – a veterans group). Overall between 1919-1923 there were 376 political murders, mostly of left wing or moderate politicians. However not a single right wing was convicted and executed; this shows how much the judiciary was filled with right wing. The Spartacist League ( a left wing movement) Sometimes extreme political groups try to over throw the government by force. ...read more.

Conclusion

It was also one more thing to make moderate Germans feel that the Weimar was becoming a Success. Between 1923-1929, moderate Germans regained confidence in the Weimar republic. 1. Stresemann had restored economic stability. 2. He had also regained a place for Germany on the International stage. 3. He had kept the support of moderate parties on Left and Right wing. 4. He was steering the Weimar out of its troubled early years. Economic Crisis, 1929-1932. The great depression. The Wall Street crash. In October 1919, share prices began to fall on the Wall Street stock market, in New York. Falling shares meant peoples investment fell in value. On ?Black Thursday? 24th October 1919, 13 million shares were sold. Economic effects. It was equally bad for companies that sold at home or abroad. The world wide depression was a disaster for export industries but high Unemployment meant that domestic demands for goods fell too. Unemployment raised a lot! Social and political effects. The economic collapse caused suffering. 1. The middle classes lost savings, their companies or their homes. 2. Workers became unemployed. People demanded political action, the Weimar republic failed them. Heinrich Bruning (Chancellor) proposed: 1. Raising hopes to pay the cost of Unemployment benefit. 2. Reducing Unemployment benefit to make payments more affordable. This pleased no one. Right wing parties, middle class and the wealth opposed higher taxes. Left wing parties and the working class opposed lower benefits. The coalition of parties which Bruning government depended on collapsed in 1930. Bruning could only govern by decree. Bruning resigned in 1932, leaving a dangerous power vacuum for a new leader to step in to. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Germany 1918-1939 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Germany 1918-1939 essays

  1. Why Did The Weimar Republic Face So Many Problems In The Years Of 1919-1923?

    It seemed Germanys only hope was to look outside Europe, which is what they did. They looked to the U.S.A. Germany took a loan out with the U.S to help pay off the reparations. However in 1929 the Wall Street crash occurred in the U.S.

  2. Weimar, 1918 - 1923

    for every 60,000 votes a party received it could count one Reichstag member." * The Reichsrat (upper house) consisted of representatives of the regional (L´┐Żnder) governments. It had the power to veto legislation passed by the Reichstag.

  1. What problems did the Weimar Republic face from 1919 to 1923, and why did ...

    Thus, the government was shown to be even more unstable and weak and these rebellions showed how little support people, including Germany's own army, had for the new Republic.

  2. Why was the Weimar Republic able to survive 1919 - 1929?

    A portion of the population that was anti-democratic included the army (led by right-wing General Seeckt). This made survival of the Weimar republic extremely difficult as the government rarely gained enough support, especially in times of need. The army was not fully unde the government's control and it failed to

  1. Why did the Weimar Republic survive the crisis of 1918 – 1923?

    Although there was a talk of a German October, The Red army in the Ruhr was easily put down by the army and so, due to the incompetence of the Left and bad organisation, they were doomed from the start and never really strong enough to take control of the Government...so the Weimar Republic survived.

  2. Describe the key features of the Stresemann era from 1923 to 1929

    All in all this package reassured the Allies that the reparation payments would be satisfied, and also, for the Germans, the French agreed to leave the Ruhr as they thought that they could now trust they could receive their payments.

  1. To what extent were the problems of 1919-1923 overcome by the Weimar Government by ...

    in Germany from the Reichmark to the Rentenmark, and this combined with restarting industrial production stabilised the economy. The Dawes Plan also arranged American loans and money poured into Germany to help her develop industry once again. The Hyperinflation was therefore ended as stated by Histortian A Wood: "The Dawes

  2. Free essay

    Why did the Weimar Republic collapse in 1933?

    They organised the army and police to arrest Hitler. The Nazis were cornered and in the residenzstrausse. 16 men were killed and Hitler fled. He was later captured and arrested. Problems in Germany arose such as unemployment, and the fact thousands of soldiers had no work.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work