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How did the Nazis gain and maintain power in Germany?

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Introduction

Nazi regime: How did the Nazis gain and maintain power in Germany? * Why did no one succeed in stopping Hitler? o 37% of votes in July o Higher than any other party o Good reason for Hitler to take control and power o Hitler had learnt the only way to achieve real power was through democracy thanks to the Munich Putsch o Hitler established a secure position very quickly once he came to power o Papen and the other Weimar politicians believed that the constitution would stop revolutionary movements o Hitler turned down the position of vice-chancellor, good move, he wanted to become the chancellor which would give him far more power. o Papen and Hindenburg failed to stop Hitler; Hindenburg was old and tired. He was frustrated in the way he was made to involve himself in government. Her may have been sick and or mentally weakened due to his age. o There is definitely evidence that Hindenburg was tired of politics o Weak democratic roots in Germany o Not used to elected politicians, too shallow roots of democracy, Hitler exploited this. o Failure of left wing to unite against Hitler o Communists and socialists were not on talking terms, very different ideas and plans o Success in March 5th election: 44% of the vote o Gives them lots of power o Process of Gleichschaltung (co-ordination) o All institutions drawn under the Nazi regime o People like the idea of unification o Whole apparatus of state now at Hitler's disposal o Greater effect of Hitler because of years of Message of rebirth hammered home. ...read more.

Middle

while the right wing was let off leniently o War had been brought to an end o Economy was returned to peace time status o Treaty of Versailles was not as harsh as it had once been o The German industrial areas had not been invaded so they were not damaged. o Treaty of Versailles was psychologically damaging more than it actually crippled the economy. o Anti-Semitism present throughout Europe. o Elected president, Chancellor relied on the Reichstag for support. o Women could vote too. * 1923 o French invaded Ruhr o Government printed money and caused hyperinflation. o The Munich Putsch was an indication of the weak situation in Germany o Hitler learnt from the Putsch o The Rentenmark stabilised the currency. o Finance minister Luther helped to stabilise the currency. o Hitler failed in his Putsch, showed his inadequacies. * 1924-1925 o Legacy of bitterness, middle-classes was very badly affected by inflation. o Treaty of Versailles remained o Loans brought in o Foreign policy effective o Wanted to revise eastern borders o Governments were short lived o No more coups or assassinations o French troops left the Ruhr o Germany was respected abroad o Economic collapse in 1929 was negative o Germany was not well governed. The Weimar republic could not survive and did not. Was there a social revolution in Nazi Germany? * Social revolution involves fundamental social change. Class reversal. Change in ownership of property. ...read more.

Conclusion

* Olympics held in 1936 in Germany, Berlin was 'cleaned up' for the outside world, all the anti-Semitic behaviour was hidden from visitors. * Hitler didn't want negative foreign opinion during peace time * November 1938 Kristallnacht * Stigmatisation against Jews, but people were being pressured to leave. No genocide yet. * 1939-41: resettlement plans for Jews. They were poorly treated on purpose to increase the number of Jews who died 'naturally'. * Polish elites killed in mass shootings * The euthanasia programme * 1941, Russia was invaded on the 22nd of July * Hitler is loosing it - mood swings, ageing rapidly * Racial war against sub-humans in the east * 23 June; Einsatzgruppen went into Russia, atrocities all over Russia * August 1941, rapid escalation of number involved in both those doing the killing and those being killed * Hitler never gave a written order to start the holocaust * 3 September; test of Zyklon B gas * Mass shootings were difficult and inefficient. Soldiers had to be made drunk to start killing and when they went home they would tell people about the killings * Gassings using car exhausts at Chelmino * Germans start to make techniques more efficient and professional * Start using gas chambers disguised as showers * Hitler's role was central, he set the tone * It was not totalitarian, people worked to please Hitler, didn't need to be given orders * How were the people who carried it out so radicalised History conference notes ...read more.

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