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How did the Tsar survive in 1905?

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How did the Tsar survive in 1905? Up to the end of the 19th century, Russia was an autocratic country. It was ruled by an autocratic Tsar. He ruled, as he liked. His will was the sole source of law, of taxation and justice. He controlled the army and all the officials. Through his special position on the Holy Synod, he controlled even religious affairs. The privileged nobles, who possessed land and serfs, and held all the chief offices in the Tsar's administration, supported his autocratic rule. The mass of people was serfs. Serfs were 'slaves'. They worked on the estates of the nobles. The nobles could punish them in any form. The nobles could even sell them as chattels. Besides the serfs, there was a very small middle class in the towns. They were discontented with the backwardness of Russia. The main theme of the Russian history in the 19th century is that the non-noble classes asked for an improvement in their wretched and poor conditions of life. ...read more.


However, despite its efforts it backfired violently and pushed more reason for a revolution. An Orthodox priest Father Gapon had been acting as a police agent in charge of one of these groups, The Assembly of Russian Factory Workers, when news of the failure at Port Arthur provoked widespread unrest in St Petersburg. He organized a petition to the Tsar demanding an elected assembly, minimum wage and the abolition of redemption repayments and led a march on the winter palace to air his criticism. More than 15,000 people, who at the arrival met police and soldiers who tried to push them away. Doing so they failed and panicked, resulting in them opening fire on the protesters, killing several hundred people. Although Nicholas was not at the palace, it was widely believed that it was the Tsar who had given the order to open fire on the demonstrators. This totally alienated the crowd from the crown. The government remained confident and determined, as any sign of weakness would encourage the opposition to keep fighting. ...read more.


Despite there failure against the way with Japan, it gave the Tsar more influence amongst the people. In my opinion, the Tsar survived the revolution because despite a few naval incidents the army remained loyal enough to support him throughout and to crush his opposition. What seems to be clear is that the ability of the Tsar and his government to ride out the problems of 1905 was, in spirit, their pulling themselves together and effectively dealing with the situation in hand. Concessions were made where they were needed, none of which seriously damaged or altered the Tsar's power, and force stepped in where political pacification did not placate. The government acted effectively in the face of combining external issues, dealt with them to the extent of sending most of the general population back to work and away from governmental necks (despite a few assassinations), and, while perhaps not emerging unscathed, emerged nonetheless. The revolution, if that is what it truly was, was a rebellion driven by displeasure with living-not discontent directed squarely at the government in and of itself. ...read more.

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