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How did the tsar survive the 1905 revolution?

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Introduction

How did the tsar survive the 1905 revolution? How did the Tsar overcome the opposition they faced in the 1905 revolution? Many things where going against the Tsar at that time but was the main factor? It is thought to be one of three, the failing of the opposition, and the use of force and the makings of concessions. I will investigate these factors then come to conclusion on which factor was actually most influential. The reason this revolution came about was because in the lead up to the actual opposition to the government there was increasing social unrest caused by rapid industrialisation: There was no way of the lower classes expressing their political views, there was no parliament for them, there was a discontented and oppressed working class, and a desperate and poverty stricken peasantry. The middle classes were unhappy because of the absence of being able to have a say in what was happening in their country, this was a problem for the vast population. The peasants were poor because they owned no land for themselves and of poor harvests and heavy taxing by the Tsar to pay for industrialisation. The working classes had to cope with very poor working conditions, for very long hours and for very little pay. ...read more.

Middle

There was much opposition to Tsar, from all the classes but they where un-organised. Strikes and demonstrations towards the Tsar were spontaneous and not coordinated. Although a general strike did take place in St. Petersburg co-ordinated largely by the St. Petersburg Soviet under Trotsky, there was never any strong solidarity because of the small un-coordinated groups (Witte used divide and rule tactics that satisfied the middle classes enough to split them from the working class.) And the motive behind the strikes was more economic than political. To try and restore order in Russia the Tsar introduced the Duma to try and ease peoples concerns by introducing new laws that met with many of their demands, it was announced on August 6, but the Tsar was not obliged to consult this. The federation of the Zemstvo council and the union of liberation resulted in the kadets becoming the council. The Kadets wanted a proper democratic constitution but still maintaining their support towards the Tsar. All parties were not against the Tsar though; in October the first right wing party was formed: the union of Russian people. The country came to a stand still and the Tsar was forced to make changes to survive. He had to declare Marshall Law or go along with the demands if he had chosen Marshall Law he would have to use the army to put down any opposition. ...read more.

Conclusion

The use of force came to the for front though when Stolypin replaced Witte, he used police and law courts against agitators. The agitators were hung, or sent into exile in Siberia. Trotsky who had played a leading part in the St. Petersburg Soviet was arrested. Striking workers had to stop and start to work again or face starvation. Stolypin used hired thugs in the countryside, known as Black Hundreds, to kill suspected peasant troublemakers. All the factors shown did make a significant difference in the Tsar maintaining its power despite the unrest during the 1905 revolution, The failings of the opposition made a significant difference as it was thought that if the oppositions protests had been more organised and co-ordinated (the protests and disturbances were not so random) and the groups had come together then the Tsar would un-doubt ably would have been under greater pressure, the Tsar relived some of the pressure they were under by making concessions in the October Manifesto and the Duma without these being created, the lower classes would always be un-happy, The main reason the Tsar survived in my opinion was the Tsars use of force (Mainly administered through Stolypin) as no matter what the peasants thought they would have to regain order whether or not they where pleased with the concessions that where forced to regain order and the Tsar was still supreme ruler of Russia. By Oliver Crampton ...read more.

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