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How Did Tsar Nicholas 2nd Survive The 1905 Revolution

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Introduction

How Did Tsar Nicholas 2nd Survive The 1905 Revolution? There are several factors that help our understanding of how the tsar and his regime endured the turmoil of the 1905 revolution. However, one thing is for sure, after the uprising and swift, brutal suppression of the revolutionaries on the 22nd of January 1905 outside the gates of the Winter Palace, the Nicholas 2nd and his administration received a drastic wake up call. Even though the monarchy received a hard slap on this day, the tsar himself was in no immediate danger; the ignorance of the instigator, Father Gapon, ensured that he didn't even know that the tsar was not occupying the Palace at this time. There is much debate as to whether or not the events of 1905 constituted a revolution at all. Leon Trotsky, a famous and influential revolutionary writer stated that it was merely a 'dress rehearsal' for 1917, and he is not without support. The impact that it had was minimal compared to any other of history's great political upheavals. Many Marxist historians believe that 1905 only worsened matters, making full a scale revolt inevitable and simply acting as a stepping-stone to Lenin's seizure of power. ...read more.

Middle

he made sure that he retained control of the naval and military forces. It is not true that every soldier and naval recruit stayed devoted to their god chosen tsar; in June of 1905 the crew of the Battle Ship Prince Potemkin mutinied and slit the throats of all the officers on board, and as a further sign of protest sailed the ship out of Russian waters. This was one of the only recorded cases of mutiny in the ranks, but as Witte said while commenting on the troops return from the Far East, 'if they join the revolution, then everything will collapse'. It would have been understandable if the army had decided to turn on its commander in chief, as the failure of the upper ranks to devise suitable tactics was pitiful. The decision to travel into Asian waters with the entire Baltic fleet cost 12,600 Russian lives alone, with a further 85,000 perishing in the Battle Of Mukden when Commander Stoessel sacrificed impregnable defensive ground. It was not only the support of the armed forces that the last tsar relied upon; it was also the patronage of the police forces and his secret political police, the Okhranka. ...read more.

Conclusion

The Manifesto itself included concessions on; Freedom of speech, freedom of assembly (the volatility of the situation meant anti-liberal views were already relaxed within government), freedom of the press and a promise to incorporate a bicameral legislative parliament in 1906. Struve and Miliukov (the respective heads of the liberal parties) accepted this constitution of behalf of the workers, deciding to with hold any criticism for the time it was released in case it did not live up to the standards promised. For the liberals this was a huge step towards a more democratic nation, and in theory it held all the answers to their many problems, but in reality it was an intelligent ploy on Witte's behalf to split the opposition, rendering it useless. The more militant wings were now isolated leaving a substantial number of opponents in want of peace. It is something I have already mentioned, but there is always strength in numbers, and separating the antagonists was vital for autocratic survival. A third Duma was also established, incorporating the classes that previously were exempt from voting. They also had supposed power over law passing; just as our house of lords did at this time, the Duma had the power to veto laws that would otherwise be passed. Every law had to be run through them before they were approved. ...read more.

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