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How far did Sun Yixian contribute to the ending of Manzhu rule in 1911? (1994)

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How far did Sun Yixian contribute to the ending of Manzhu rule in 1911? (1994) Introduction The 1911 Revolution was so important in the Chinese history that it ended the thousand-year-old absolute monarchy???? and opened a new era. The KMT??? followers liked calling Dr. Sun the "Father of Nation??", as if the birth of the Chinese republic was mainly his contribution. Let's evaluate?? how far Dr. Sun really led to the success of the 1911 Revolution. Main Body A. Dr. Sun's role: Like Lenin, Dr. Sun was mainly engaged?? in the preparation???? and aftermath?? of the Revolution, rather than in actual fighting. I. Role as thinker???, propagandist??? and fund-raiser???: He was the first one who advocated?? for a modern revolution in China in order to build up a Chinese nation-state with popular sovereignty????. a. Inspirational???Oath??: "Expel the Manzhu, restore the Chinese rule, establish a republic, equalize land ownership???????????????????" made the revolutionary goal clear --> many followers. b. Three Principles of the People (sanmin zhuyi????) refer to nationalism, democracy (people's rights) and livelihood. These made up a basic revolutionary ideology???? after 1905 --> popular support i. Nationalism (minzu zhuyi????): anti-Manzhu nature --> widely echoed?? ii. Democracy (minquan zhuyi????): noble?? ideal?? (but few people understood except the literati????) ...read more.


Besides, the seizure?? of Hanyang Arsenal????? during the Wuchang Uprising???? of October 1911 was directed?? by Huang Xing. When the 1911 Revolution broke out, Dr. Sun was in the U.S. Above all, the 1911 Revolution had not been planned in advance??. c. Penetration?? into the New Army: Dr. Sun contributed much less than Huang Xing and Song Jiaoren to this aspect. Huang Xing influenced the army students in Wuchang, while Song Jiaoren attracted young army officers in Wuhan??. IV. Role as a diplomat: a. Successful diplomacy: When the 1911 Revolution broke out, Dr. Sun decided not to go back to China at once??. Instead, he tried best to secure?? the neutrality?? of the U.S. and European powers, in case?? that these countries would bolster?? the Manzhu Dynasty and help crush?? the revolution. Success --> France kept neutral; Britain stopped financial aid to the Manzhu government; the Four-Power Consortium?????? promised to finance the new Republican government instead --> isolation of the Manzhu government --> quicker fall b. Reservation: Other than Dr. Sun's diplomacy, the non-intervention??? policy of the Great Powers was also due to their own mutual?? suspicion?? and rivalries??. They also believed that the Manzhu Dynasty was already incurable????, in addition to the revolutionary atmosphere?? in China. On the other hand, Russia and Japan did not step in?? the Revolution partly because Yuan Shikai??? ...read more.


d. Failure of reforms: The Self-Strengthening Movement, the Hundred Days Reform and the Late Qing Reform not only all failed to make China strong but led to regionalism????. Especially the deceitful??? Royal Cabinet???? of 1911 made the Manzhu lose popular support. Revolution was left as the only means?? to save China. II. Poverty??, social discontent and natural disasters??: Inadequate?? lands, dissolution?? of the self-sufficient???? economy, high taxes, natural calamities??, corrupt officials and frequent "religious cases??" with foreigners, etc. all added to social unrest?? and sped up?? the "dynastic cycle????". III. Devastative???? rebellions: The Taiping Rebellion destroyed the richest???? areas of southern China. The Nian? and Moslem rebellions made the central and border areas?? of China "rotten??". The Boxer Uprising brought about widespread?? devastation?? to northern China. --> huge?? economic losses + rise of regional officials --> weakened?? the foundation?? of the Qing Dynasty IV. Influx?? of western ideas: Ideas of constitutionalism????, democracy and republicanism???? were imported from the West. They had great impacts on the younger generation???? of China. --> inclined?? to the revolutionaries V. Nationalization??? of Railways (immediate cause): opposition of the local gentry?? and people (high-tide of regionalism) --> unrest in Sichuan?? --> diverted?? the Manzhu attention --> Hubei?? became naked??? to the revolutionary attacks Conclusion The success of the 1911 Revolution was, in short, a fruit produced by many personalities?? and the interaction?? of many factors. Therefore, the role of Dr. Sun was great but should not be exaggerated??. 1 ...read more.

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