• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

How far do you agree with the statement that 'security not revenge' was the main objective of the statesmen at the Congress of Vienna in 1815?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

How far do you agree with the statement that 'security not revenge' was the main objective of the statesmen at the Congress of Vienna in 1815? The Congress of Vienna in 1815 was brought on by the wars of Napoleon I. In 814 Napoleon was first defeated at the Battle of Nations at Leipzig. It was the initiative of the foreign minister of Napoleon, Talleyrand, that Napoleon should be expelled and the Bourbon monarchy should be restored. This change brought about the First Treaty of Paris, in which it was concluded that all European statesmen should meet to discuss European affairs, chiefly how to restore peace in Europe The First Treaty of Paris, which marked the attitude of the Vienna Congress strongly indicated that security was the main principle -not revenge. The France of the Bourbon monarch, Louis XVIII was to consist of its ancient limits, payments of indemnity were minimal, artefacts from conquered towns were not to be returned, and no army of occupation would be placed in France. This attitude of the statesmen shows that they did not wish to take revenge by humiliating France: there were no unnecessarily harsh penalties. ...read more.

Middle

Here again we see that revenge between one nation and another was not an important issue, rather the statesmen allied themselves against the revolutionary masses. Another interest of Metternich's was to provide for peace in a stable Europe. This view was shared by other war-weary nations. It was Britain's representative, Lord Castlereigh, who had a distinct view on how to restore peace in Europe. Castlereigh stated that this would be done by restoring a just equilibrium, a balance of power. This marked another major principle of the settlement: that no major power should be in the position to threaten the independence of the rest. Metternich was pleased; war would have caused the collapse of the ramshackle of the Austrian Empire. Here again the statesmen worked to secure their own interests, which were to provide security for the continent, not to take revenge on France. The territorial changes were a complex issue to fix: they had to be a compromise between the rival interests of the great powers and to provide for 'buffer states' around France. ...read more.

Conclusion

The statesmen were anxious not to interrupt their work. Napoleon was defeated at the battle of Waterloo, and the Vienna settlement remained mainly unaltered. However, Napoleon's return did result in a new peace treaty, a harsher one than in 1814. The Second Treaty of Paris placed an army of occupation in northern France for five years, restricted French borders and demanded that the stolen artefacts be returned. This was still not a very humiliating treaty, as compared to later ones, for instance the Treaty of Versailles in 1918, for the indemnity payments were manageable. So yes, the statesmen at Vienna could definitely be blamed for putting their personal ambitions before the nationalistic interests of their people, but not for seeking vengeance on France. The settlement concerning France and her former allies was lenient, and aided the construction of a stable regime. They made a settlement which gave basis for re-establishing good terms between the nations and did not result in hostilities. This essay was written under examination conditions, in the IB1 end-of-year exams 2002. This essay was an IB History HL question from Paper 3. (3 essays -2h 30min) Evaluation by Niklas Andersson: 18/20 A well structured answer -something of the national ambitions, which caused division, could be mentioned. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE International relations 1900-1939 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE International relations 1900-1939 essays

  1. "Was the treaty of Versailles fair?"

    They would loose out financially as they would loose there income from the industrial regions lost. Also they would loose the taxes that would have been paid by citizen living in other countries which belonged to Germany. They would loose out in terms of the military as they could not rely on citizens from other countries to fight for them.

  2. The Vienna Settlement

    Sweden gained Norway from Denmark partly as compensation for her loss of Finland to Russia and partly as a punishment of Denmark for her continued alliance with Napoleon. As a result, wars were avoided during the course of remapping Europe.

  1. "The breakdown of the Concert of Europe was mainly caused by disagreements amongst the ...

    Britain attempted to get more colonies instead of territories on the mainland. It did not want to be involved too much in European affairs. As a result, the Powers were separated into two sides: one favoured intervention and the other opposed it.

  2. AMR essay

    while visiting America and expand upon those so that his meeting in China would not only be successful but productive as well, something that Kruschev's visit was not. During the Cultural Revolution American aided the Nationalist, Republic of China, by giving them nearly 1 billion dollars worth of weapons and other necessities10.

  1. The new deal was not a complete success". How far do you agree with ...

    This meant that employment was low. Roosevelt's aim was to build a strong economy to do this Roosevelt has to increase employment. To do this Roosevelt introduced many policies in the new deal, which reduced unemployment. He introduced policies such as the civilian conservation corps and the public works administration.

  2. WWII Essays

    The bill, entitled ?An Act Further to Promote the Defense of the US,? was praised by the administration as a device that would keep the nation out of war, rather than drag it in. Roosevelt promised that America would be the ?arsenal of democracy.? It would send a limitless supply

  1. To What Extent Was The United Kingdom Successful in Negotiations at the Congress of ...

    It intended to stop a country becoming a single and absolute power in the continent, the way France had been under the command of Napoleon Bonaparte.

  2. How successful were the principles of British Foreign Policy pursued between 1815 and 1840?

    Castlereagh also proved to be the driving force behind the Article VI of the Second Treaty of Paris (1815), which created the Quadruple Alliance between Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria. This treaty suggested that the great powers meet from time to time to discuss current matters.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work