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How Home Rule issues shaped the views of today's Unionists and Republicans

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Introduction

History Coursework Question 2 How Home Rule issues shaped the views of today's Unionists and Republicans In the 1880's Stewart Parnell helped the Nationalists try to win Home Rule; he united groups together in Ireland under his own leadership in the Home Rule party. He brought in groups who recently had distrusted each other. The Nationalist movement was very well funded because the Irish Americans had raised a substantial amount of money for them. They had moved to America because of the famine in Ireland. By the 1880s the Nationalist movement had become very confident and very well organized. This policy became known as the New Departure. However hard Parnell tried Ireland did not win Home Rule, the Unionists had become on top. The Unionists opposed Home Rule and did so with great success. The British opposed Home Rule because trade between England and Ireland was extremely valuable. The greatest fear was about the message Home Rule for Ireland would send to other parts of Britain's vast worldwide empire. Unionists opposed Home Rule for different reasons, which included religious liberty, economic prosperity, preserving the United Kingdom and membership of the Empire. The supporters of Home Rule for the Unionists were the farmers, landowners, professionals, English MPs, Protestants and businessmen. ...read more.

Middle

They admired the achievements of Parnell and they were inspired by Irelands history, especially by past Irish revolutionaries such as Wolfe Tone.Many IRB members also belonged to Sinn Fein. Arthur Griffith as a radical revival to John Redmond's moderate Nationalist party, the IPP, founded Sinn Fein in 1905. Sinn Fein is Gaelic and can be translated as 'We ourselves alone' or 'Ourselves alone'. Griffith believed that all Irish MPS should withdraw from the Westminster. He thought that they should set up their own Parliament in Dublin. In by-elections and general elections up to 1910 Sinn Fein achieved very little. Support for Sinn Fein started to increase as tension increased over the Home Rule crisis. Griffith set out a vision of an independent Ireland, with its own government determining Irelands social and economic policies on main issues like religion and land. Young Nationalists began to feel that Sinn Feins more radical approach would be a lot more effective than Redmond's Mps in London in achieving Home Rule. The New Generation of Irish Nationalists were no longer content with Home Rule. They wanted total seperation of the whole of Ireland from Britain. ...read more.

Conclusion

1500 people were freed on questioning. 1841 of these were interned without trial in England, and 171 were tried by secret court martial resulting in 170 convictions. 90 were sentenced to death but 75 of these sentences were commuted to life imprisonment. Pearse, Connolly, Clarke, MacDonagh, MacDermott, Plunkett, and Ceannt were all executed to the outrage of the Iris public who had now started to revise their opinion of the insurgents to that of a heroic nature. The most predictable effect of these measures was to increase public sympathy. The Police authorities noted even amongst moderate Nationalists a growing ' wave of resentment', prompted by the feeling that 'unnecessary severity had been deployed'. Symptoms of the change in attitudes included; the increasing frequency of memorial masses for the executed rebels; the growing sales of photographs of them; the setting up of aid funds for their families; the appearance of songs and ballads celebrating; the ubiquity of republican flags and badges; the sight of young men marching military style at Gaelic football matches, and the shouting of rebel slogans anywhere people gathered together. There were signs that militant Nationalists were reorganizing. In mid- June 1916 Maxwell predicted that in a General Election the moderate nationalist Irish Parliamentary Party would probably be replaced. In December 1918 Sinn Fein had replaced the Parliamentary Party. Emily Boaler ...read more.

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