• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Improvements in Public Health

Extracts from this document...


AsssImprovements in Public Health between 1840 and 1900 Between 1840 and 1900 living conditions in towns improved. How did the work of government, local councils and individuals bring this about? In this essay I will discuss the conditions in towns between 1840 and 1900 and the improvements in Public health since 1840. While doing this I will link reasons together to achieve my final conclusion. I will begin with an explanation of living conditions in towns and cities in the early 19th century. Living in the early 19th Century was very tough for most people. At least 80% were working class. Houses where small and over crowded allowing diseases to spread easily. The air was polluted, poor and environment unhealthy because the people did not know about the causes and consequences of pollution. For example, coal burning from houses and factories was polluting the environment, but it was the main source of fuel. The environment was not just damaged by coal burning and the resulting sulphur dioxide and carbon dioxide, it was also unbearable because of the terrible smell and insanitary living conditions. The smell was caused by the lack of sewerage system, public toilets (as only rich people could afford a toilet in the house), dirty water; unhygienic disposal of waste and the fact that cleaning methods were inadequate - no reliable products. The filth was particularly bad in the Soho district of London. ...read more.


New laws, such as the 1875 Artisan's Dwelling Act, meant that better housing was being built. It was an act of the parliament designed by Richard Cross, Home Secretary. The Act made the owners give their slums to the council so they could demolish the areas of slum housing to be redeveloped by commercial builders with low interest. The Artisans Dwelling Act of 1885 was considered one of most significant acts of the Prime Minister, Benjamin Disraeli's presidency. The improvements to public heath brought real benefits. By this time cities had facilities to meet all kinds of interests, from dance halls to chapels. People joined together in a wide range of clubs and societies. There were nearly 700,000 allotments by 1881. Allotment holders held competitions for flowers and vegetables. Enthusiasts, usually men, took time to trouble over breeding birds such as pigeons or canaries. Choirs were very popular, usually as part of church or chapel life. Many played in brass bands, often sponsored by a factory-owner. By the end of the century, cycling had become a popular hobby with both sexes. Thousands began to spend their Saturday watching sport. Various kinds of football had been popular for centuries. They were crude rough games, with few rules. Now people lived in clean houses and apartments. In Birmingham Joseph Chamberlain made calls for slum clearance, improved housing, municipalisation of public utilities and higher taxes for the rich. ...read more.


William Beaumont (1822) studied the digestive system. Theodor Schwann (1858) realised that animal tissues were made of cells. Henry Gray (1858) wrote Grays anatomy and people started to have a broad knowledge of how their bodies worked. Louis Pasteur discussed that germs can cause disease rather that's the previous theory of spontaneous generation where diseases cause germs. This also led to the pasteurisation of milk. Robert Kock studied bacteria further and identified bacteria specific to the diseases septicaemia, TB and cholera and others discovered the bacteria that caused typhoid pneumonia and the plague. Patrick Manson 1879 discovered that diseases could be spread by vectors such as flies. Charles Chamberlain (1884) discovered viruses. Therefore understanding of disease was improving rapidly and there were some inventions that helped the treatment of disease also, e.g. multi lens microscope (Lister 1826) kymograph to measure pulse (1847 Ludwig) and x-rays (Roentgen 1895). At the beginning of the 19th century doctors would only provide comfort but by the end they could treat diseases and heal some patients with surgery. I believe the living conditions between 1840 and 1900 did improve. The government and local councils brought this about by clearing slums and areas of bad, dirty housing, supporting improvements in biology knowledge cleaning up sewers and improving local government, encouraging people to help themselves and no longer accepting poverty as something that can not be dealt with. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE History Projects section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE History Projects essays

  1. Why did medical care need to be improved during the early 19th century

    It also does not indicate the absolute fear that people had regarding surgery. Sources A, B and C are useful to a point because together they explain basically how bad Surgery was in the 19th Century, but they only concentrate on the bad and negative points of Surgery and Medical Care.

  2. Louis Pasteur V Edwin Chadwick

    Pasteur soon discovered that a particular micro-organism was growing rapidly in the liquid and showed the brewers how to stop this by boiling the beer. He then became well known in France and his ideas were then called upon by many industries where he discovered that micro-organisms were the cause of wine, beer and vinegar fermentation and milk going sour.

  1. Between 1840 and 1900 living conditions in towns improved, how did the work of ...

    Most people had no indoor heating, so many people were cold, and this would have contributed to illnesses like colds, hypothermia and pneumonia. Many cases would not have been treated as mentioned before there was no free medical care. In the lower classes people wouldn't have enough money to pay

  2. Research Topic: Health Welfare of elderly in Shanghai

    Chapter 2: Background information to research question/hypothesis Ever since the one-child policy started in China during the late 1970s, China has been facing an ageing population over the years. This is because fertility rates have been decreasing rapidly and the people have longer life spans compared to the previous centuries due to the improved healthcare provided in China.

  1. Olympics More Than Just A Sport

    It is said that Hitler stated "The Americans should be ashamed of themselves, letting Negros win their Medals for them. I shall not shake hands with a Negro... Do you really think that I will allow myself to be photographed with a Negro!?"

  2. From the evidence available, trace the development of the Jewellery Quarter in the ...

    This shows that the area had changed from a mainly residential area to a mainly industrial area in only 60 years. In the 1850s, the Jewellery Quarter was able to expand vastly due to the cheap gold flooding in from California and Australia.

  1. Roosevelt's New Deal

    and by saying and promising these things, he is giving the American people hope, and confidence that finally someone capable of giving them what they need, and apparently able to help them, has arrived. Source B supports this statement in the way that he talks about the major achievements of the New Deal.

  2. The Panchayat system as an early form of conflict resolution in Trinidad.

    Usually, when the disputes of the Indians from Dow Village and Esperanza came to the courts. Mr Andre asked if the Panchayat mediated and what was the outcome. Many times he sent the disputants back to the community and the Panchayat.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work