• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

In what ways were the Soviet Union and its citizens affected by the Five Year Plans?

Extracts from this document...


In what ways were the Soviet Union and its citizens affected by the Five Year Plans? Impact of industry Stalin commenced focus on heavy industry and accentuated that all factories which produced consumer goods would have to acclimatise to manufacturing the materials requisite for the staple industries. Coal and iron output doubled after the first plan and quadrupled after the second, electricity generation trebled by 1933 and increased sixfold by 1937. After being second largest industry in the world after only USA in 1939, it portrayed that they could fruitfully surmount prominent capitalist countries and Stalin's objective of overtaking them would, in retrospect, fortified his concept of 'socialism in one country'. Detriments of the targets Managers falsified returns so those targets appeared to be met. Production targets were over-optimistic - only oil and steel exceeded targets. ...read more.


Many energy-consuming industries were also able to proliferate due to the hydroelectric power generated through the dam, which was imperative for Soviet army aviation. Peasants and internal migration There was an influx of peasants into the urbanised areas in order for them to look for prospects for highly-paid jobs. This caused mass internal migration and thus acute overcrowding and by 1935, only one in twenty Moscow families had more than one room to themselves. Moreover, workers who were striving in the new industrial plants were forced to live in tents as there was no housing in the area, as it was previously fallow land. There was also the introduction of internal passports, to record the locations of the Soviet citizens; relocation had to be endorsed otherwise you could not gain a job or rations - this enabled Stalin to retain skilled workers in their respective industry. ...read more.


Likewise, many young graduates joined Komsomol, the Communist Union of Youth, and they volunteered to assist as 'pioneers' by means of helping create the new industrial cities; 250,000 were sent every summer to do this. Growth of gulags There were extreme production quotas and were coerced to work in derisory conditions, without adequate clothing and food and hence, Stalin instigated the upsurge of zeks and by 1937, there were 6 million of them. Stalin ensured that they were used for industrial or infrastructural construction projects, such as the building of the Moscow Metro, the extension of the Trans-Siberian Railway and the Belomor Canal. In the latter, 100,000 zeks died when digging the Belomor Canal, and although Stalin deemed it a major success and was built four months ahead of schedule, it was useless for its purpose as an escape route from the Baltic Sea, as it was too narrow and shallow for vessels. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Russia, USSR 1905-1941 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Russia, USSR 1905-1941 essays

  1. 'The Five Year Plans brought glory to Stalin and misery to his people.' How ...

    The west was ahead of the soviet in terms of living standards, therefore industrialising the USSR was creating wealth for a society. USSR would be led by its people therefore if Communism was to survive the people had to be treated right, this meant that the people should live a happy life and opportunities had to be given to them.

  2. Stalin and the Five-Year Plans.

    The achievements of the Five Year Plans can also be described as the 'modernising of the USSR'. The Five Year Plans can be described as this because the Soviet Union would then be less dependent on the West for goods like coal, iron, steel and could move towards autarky or more commonly known self-sufficiency.

  1. Stalin and the Five Year Plans

    of Russian industry was increased by some amount and farmers were given tractors and other heavy machinery to help them produce crops. Although all these things would have brought glory to Stalin as a result, they did still help Russia a lot in terms of its economy and place in the world.

  2. five year plans in russia

    They were, however, not allowed to join the collectives and millions if these peasants were sent to labour camps or executed. Most kulaks and destroyed their property, machinery, crops and animals so that the government would not be able to use it.

  1. 'The Five Year Plans brought glory to Stalin and misery to his people' - ...

    region and setting strict deadlines for them, he would then be able to make best use of Russia's abundant industrial resources to process the brisk industrialisation needed to protect the country from the obstacles to come in the near future in order to survive.

  2. where the five year plans successful

    time that in Russia people felt proud of their country for a long time. In addition, there was a group of people who were called the Stankanovites who worked for long hours. Moreover, it also gave job opportunities to women.

  1. Purges and Hysteria in the Soviet Union

    "We are fifty or a hundred years behind the advanced countries," he said. "We must catch up in ten years, or they will crush us." Extending the battle to the home front, there were to be no more diverse schools of thought.

  2. Stalins Five Year Plans were a great success 1928-1941. Do you agree? Explain you ...

    The targets helped the workers to stay aware of what is expected from them. In order to achieve the targets, the workers were offered incentives which inspired them to work harder. Workers who exceeded their targets were entitled to better housing, free holidays and cash prizes.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work