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International Relations: Revision Notes (1929-39)

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Introduction

International Relations Road to War, 1929-1939: * The Wall Street Crash 1929 saw America?s economy collapse, and led to economic depression in America * America called back loans given during WWI to other countries, bankrupting them, especially Germany who had suffered from reparations * Economic depression is likely to lead to political extremism as the public begin to look for stronger leadership, more likely to become isolationist and co-operate less on the international scale * Consequences of WSC: high unemployment, essentials became more expensive, reduced business, other countries pulled into the depression due to loans The League of Nations: * Set up in 1919 as one of Wilson?s 14 points, calling for international co-operation, disarmament, better social conditions and less aggression by countries * Early successes include settling land disputes in 1920s with Aaland Islands and Vilna, as well as helping refugees and increasing overall social conditions Manchurian ...read more.

Middle

but did not include oil * Italy was still free to trade with other countries such as the USA * Britain left the Suez Canal open for Italy to use to reach Abyssinia * Hoare-Laval pact made outside of League: Most of Abyssinia given to Italy, but Italy alienated from the Stresa Front alliance, and sought to begin diplomacy with Germany * Sanctions were in the end overturned as they had no effect on Italy, and Italy leaves the League in 1937 Germany- the Treaty of Versailles & Hitler’s Uprising: * After losing WWI Germany was forced to accept the ToV, and pay reparations of £6600 million * Germany also lost land, had limited military, as well as being forced to demilitarise key areas of land * Germany was not allowed to negotiate with these terms * Hitler became chancellor in 1933 * 1935 Luftwaffe air force rebuilt, conscription ...read more.

Conclusion

Germany would not touch other parts of Czechoslovakia * Start of the policy of appeasement in order to buy time for Britain to rearm and improve Britain?s economy, as well as using Germany as a barrier against communism spreading from the east, many dominions in the British Empire also did not support a war, and war was not supported by other major countries including the USA/USSR * Appeasement can be seen as putting too much trust into Hitler?s promises which were broken constantly, encouraged Hitler to be aggressive , and gave Hitler time to improve his military * 1939 Hitler invades Czechoslovakia after anarchy starts, and Pact of Steel signed with Italy * 1939 Nazi- Soviet pact, Germany and USSR agree not to attack each other, and carve up Poland * Hitler invades Poland September 1939, and ignores Britain and France?s ultimatum, leading to war being declared on Germany ...read more.

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