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International Relations: Revision Notes (Post WWII & Cold War)

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Introduction

Cold War Development 1943-56 Tehran Conference 1943: FDR, Churchill & Stalin meet to suggest that there should be two ?spheres of influence?, one for western capitalism and one for eastern communism Yalta Conference 1945: Agreement that there should be allowances for spheres of influence, as well as establishment of the UN, and that USSR troops would aid USA in fighting Japan Potsdam Conference 1945: (Truman takes over for USA) Size of Germany decreased, and split into four sections for each of the four countries (USA, Britain, France and USSR) Change in Truman?s attitude noticed with the successful test of atom bomb, Stalin reverses his promises on a free mixed government in Poland A War with Words & Alliances Suspicion between USSR and USA continues, and the Long and Novikov Telegrams are sent in 1946. Long Telegram to USA: USSR ready to destroy capitalism, unable to coexist with communism, USSR building up its military power for war Novikov?s Telegram to USSR: USA preparing public for ...read more.

Middle

Answer to the Marshall Plan, organising economic recovery for countries under the Soviet sphere of influence, boycotting Western aid 1949: NATO ? Official Military alliance to defend the West against communism 1953: De-Stalinisation, Khrushchev?s Secret Speech admitting Stalin?s tyranny 1955: Warsaw Pact in response to NATO 1956: Hungarian revolt against communist dictator Rakosi, Nagy appointed as leader with aims of leaving the Warsaw pact, seeking the UN for protection from USSR, creation of democracy with free elections and the end of communism in Hungary. USSR invades Hungary after this reported Nagy is trialled and executed, and replaced by Kadar (pro USSR) The Cold War Crises: Berlin, Cuba & Czechoslovakia Berlin was divided as decided by the Potsdam conference, but many Eastern Germans chose to escape to the more prosperous Western Berlin, prompting Khrushchev to issue an ultimatum. * 1958: Khrushchev issues ultimatum over Berlin Four summits are held to negotiate this, eventually resulting in Khrushchev backing down when Kennedy is unwilling to accept this deal (Previous negotiation attempts hampered by U2 Incident as well as general failure of diplomacy) ...read more.

Conclusion

US missiles from Turkey 1963: ?Hotline? between USSR and USA set up, Limited Test Ban Treaty * Czechoslovakia?s economy was crumbling due to ineffective Soviet control, with huge resentment over political oppression, prompting Dubcek to become leader of the Czechoslovakian Communist Party leader. 1968: Dubcek becomes leader of the Czech communist party * ?Socialism with a human face?, showing the positives of communism * Relaxation of censorship * Political criticism tolerated * Czech parliament given more power * ?Market socialism? ? elements of capitalism in economy Later on Brezhnev decides to invade in order to prevent situation from ?becoming out of control?, setting out his aims in the Brezhnev Doctrine which stated that the USSR assumed responsibility for protecting Communism and removing any threats to it. America and Europe respond by criticising the invasion, and Western European communists similarly are shocked by the invasion and distance themselves from Soviet Communism. Yugoslavia and Romania also distance themselves from USSR and form an alliance with China instead. ...read more.

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