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Irish Coursework

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Introduction

Between 100 BC and 1500 AD, Ireland was invaded three times. The first attack was by the Celts, then the Vikings and the the third by the Normans. Every time Ireland was invaded the settlers merged together and inter-married. This made Ireland become "One country, One Culture and One religion (Roman Catholic) all apart from one small part of Ireland that was called The Pale, this was controlled by England After 1500 AD there was an important change in the relationship between the English and Irish. This happened because English rulers became more interested in Ireland as England had become a protestant country after the Reformation. However Ireland stayed a country that was ruled by Roman Catholics. King Henry decided to call himself the "king of Ireland" because he wanted more power and then he told his chieftains that they had to obey him. This was when the Tudors started to change. When King Henry passed away his daughter, Elizabeth, became Queen. Elizabeth decide to change all the prayer books and the Bible to reinforce a protestant view, this is when the trouble started as the Catholics in Ireland could not accept this. The Catholics in Ireland hated the Tudors and the Protestants; they were fed up of all being controlled and being told what to do. Hugh O'Neil, a Catholic, formed an army and tried to make himself King Of Ireland but as England was better in many ways and had a stronger and more powerful Army and Navy, O'Neil was defeated. As a result of this he took his Catholics and moved to the south, but strangely the Tudors let this happen. After this, English rulers decided that military force and war was not enough to control Ireland, Ireland had the land that England wanted as the land was the resource they needed to secure power, so a different approach was needed. ...read more.

Middle

This shows us that the English attitude still holds us a lot of hatred and distrust and that the English government are prepared to lie. This cartoon was made about 100 years before The Troubles broke out and it may have been along time before it all started, but it maybe more accurate than information for 400 years before. It isn't accurate because things have most probably changed between one hundred years, although, there could have been things that happened in the nineteenth century that have lead to reasons for why the troubles broke out. The cartoon is suggesting that in the nineteenth century, the Catholic Church held all the power and they are enslaving the normal Catholic people. From my knowledge of Irish history, this was not true. Really, it was the Protestants in England that held the power as they made the penal laws. The third Source I am going to examine is Source D. Source D is written autobiography written by Bernadette Devlin, although she was an Irish catholic explaining her school days her opinion on the troubles between the Catholics and the Protestants is very balanced but it is still only one persons point of view. I believe that Bernadette Devlin made this because people did want to know about the happenings in Ireland, they wanted the truth. We can use this source because it was written by someone who was involved in the Troubles and understood why the Catholics were angry. Although there was this it also showed that Irish school children were brought up to be patriotic and nationalists she still strongly believes that Protestants cannot be classed as Irish. This source helps us try and solve out the troubles because it shows us why young catholic people got involved in the civil rights March's etc however it does not explain the final answer. The fourth source I am going to examine is source F. ...read more.

Conclusion

Since 'Bloody Sunday' there has been two Enquiries about what happened on the 30th January 1972 .The first one was written by Lord Chief Justice: Lord Widgery. Lord Widgery was demanded to write a report about what happened on 'Bloody Sunday' by the Prime Minister Edward Heith. Lord Widgery was part of the Establishment and the government, his Enquiry started on the 31st January 1972 and finished on 17th April 1972. What he put in his report after the Enquiry was that that the army were just doing there job although he did put that some of the soldiers were being wreck less and some were being respectful soldiers but there was on big flaw with this Report and that was how did he collect all his evidence and interviewed people in just 11 weeks? ON the other hand before Lord Widgery was Lord Chief Justice ha was in the British army, This does not look good when writing a report about the army because it could show that the Lord Widgery' report was biased , And infact this is what most Irish people and witnesses said and even said it was just a 'whitewash'. On the other hand this is good for the British soldiers as it was making them look good. After Tony Blair was voted Prime Minister after being Prime Minister he had demanded a new Enquiry written about what happened on 'Bloody Sunday' The Enquiry was held out by Lord Saville. His Enquiry started January 1998 and is due to finish in 2009; this second Enquiry was needed because Tony Blair thought that Lord Widgery had missed out lots and lots of witnesses also Lord Widgery did not interview any of the injured people involved and thirdly there were three more types of new evidence 1. New eye witnesses 2. New Forensic Evidence and 3. New Medical Evidence. ?? ?? ?? ?? Sam Curtin-Sewell History Coursework Mr.Brockhurst Northern Ireland Q.1 Page 1 of 7 05/05/2009 21:14:42 ...read more.

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