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GCSE: Britain 1905-1951
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- Marked by Teachers essays 7
- Peer Reviewed essays 5
To what extend do you agree with Rhodes view that the British Empire was beneficial to both Britain and the colonies?5 star(s)
In 1819 Cecil's Rhodes gave a positive view of the empire he believed that the British Empire had a positive influence on Britain and its colonies. There is evidence to support his view as the British Empire had beneficial effects on Britain. For example Britain economical strength grew rapidly as the British industries were able to acquire cheap raw materials from the colonies; Gold from South Africa, tea, spices and herbs from India etc. This made Britain a lot richer, the excess income could have then been used to further advance there technology during the industrial revolution which was a
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They were easy targets for the German machine guns. However Haig assisted Britain in winning the war and although he did so with tremendous loss of life, these men did not die pointlessly. They died to protect their families and everyone else on the home front, and they died to prevent Britain from becoming a German Nation. Haig was also faced with an almost impossible task of winning the war in the quickest means possible. Haig was under constant pressure from the government to have a large victory to boost morale.
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''Without the First World War British women would not have gained the right to vote in 1918.'' Do you agree or disagree with this interpretation?5 star(s)
This work in factories and other jobs gave women more money and confidence. This confidence meant that women were seen differently, and more able, by many men. This confidence and respect from men helped to gain women the vote in 1918, and was an important contributing factor. The work of women during the war and 1915 munitions crisis gained them respect and made David Lloyd George a great supporter. This led him to later support women's suffrage, due to his respect for the work they had done. Herbert Asquith also seemed to be converted in opinion by the women's war effort.
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What does the social welfare legislation pass between 1906 and 1911 reveal about the intentions of Lloyd George and the Liberal government?5 star(s)
There was the National Insurance act aimed to help the sick and unemployed workers therefore hopefully helping the economy and reducing poverty because of workers who were unable to work. There was also the Old Age Pensions act which aimed to help the older population by introducing pensions. It has been said that the Liberals believed a healthy and well educated work force was essential so they introduced these reforms to achieve this. The New Liberals argued that there were circumstances where state intervention could help improve people's lives.
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`It was virtually impossible to avoid losing a relative or close acquaintance' (2). The severe loss was the most important change in society. The sadness of losing loved ones would have been unbearable. It also had a knock on effect towards industry and unemployment, because some of the people who ran businesses or factories died, it meant they had to shut them down hence the people who had jobs there before were now unemployed. By 1921 unemployment had risen to 2 million. (1) Some businesses were losing trade as well, for instance the staple industries were slowly eroding away because after the war there wasn't such a need for them, they didn't have
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These points will be explained with reference to the government posters, films, literature and censorship. The whole point of the propaganda was to get more and more people to sign up for the war this reason was important because of the casualties and the hardship suffered on the home front. The way the government did this was by displaying posters saying 'your country needs you' and a lot of people were patriotic so they would join up straight away Another
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Haig also served at Egypt, South Africa and the Sudan and slowly worked up through the Ranks. In 1906 he got to the rank of Major General and was the youngest Major General in the British army at that time. When Haig returned to the United Kingdom he served as the director of Military Training and Director of Staff Duties. He was promoted to General, then returned to India for several years where he became Sir O'Moore Creagh's Chief of Staff of the Indian Army. From 1912-1914 he served as General Officer Commanding (G.O.C.) at Aldershot. In 1914 when World War One broke out Haig was given command of the First Army Corps in France.
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Also, the fighter planes from Germany could only spend 30 minutes over South-East England before having to return to refuel, this sometimes resulted in Bombers being left behind and then destroyed by British fighter planes and anti-aircraft weaponry. This period of time was called the Battle of Britain, as Britain fought alone to keep the Germans from invading. Before the war had started, Britain had developed radar in which meant the British knew when Luftwaffe formations were on their way, giving them time to prepare and get their planes in the air when needed, cutting down fuel waste as there was no need to patrol the skies.
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These were shown on the radio, in newsreels in the cinema, on posters, in newspapers and in magazines. Examples of this are shown in Sources B and C. In Source B, the image shows an air raid of a Girls School in the East End near the end of the height of the Blitz in 1943. This image was censored which shows how the government was trying to "hide the truth" in order to keep morale high as the image is very negative as it shows how innocent civilians were killed due to total warfare.
- Word count: 1034
A suffragist might look back on the funeral of Emily Davidson, which was attended by suffragists and suffragettes in London and created great publicity for the suffragist cause. This would be because it was not a violent protest, which the suffragettes condemned and was co-ordinated between suffragettes and suffragists and created the most non-violent publicity in the 8 years of campaigning. Suffragettes would also look back on the funeral and death of Emily Davidson as their greatest achievement. Emily Davidson was an important suffragette and her death created a martyr for the cause as well as huge publicity for the suffragettes.
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It was actually a very successful way in keeping morale high during the height of the Blitz. Take for example, "shelter mentality". The government was extremely worried about "shelter mentality" developing throughout the working class. Many people were already frightened by the constant threat of invasion. The government thought that the labouring force would not come out from their shelter's which would therefore mean that there would not be enough workers in factories helping build new weapons for the war.
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Although this bill was passed and rejected 15 times and yet Herbert Asquith; prime minister at the time promised women rights. This failure of the suffragists was also evident by the fact that women were even further away from getting rights as shown by how 4 million men were getting the votes. This just proved how unfair the system was. On the other hand, it could be argued that at the time, they were more effective by having a less direct approach to gain women's rights.
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Also, these bombing didn't stop Germany fighting. Infact, when the bombing took place the production of industry rose. The main goal of these bombing was to bomb industrial and military targets. However, as the bombings took place at night, bombers often failed to hit their target. For instance, in 1942, American and British bombers attacked the French Port of the Brest and Lorient.
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The First World War, and the womans actions during it, was the key reason that enabled women to get the vote in 1918 Do you agree?
Furthermore, political aspects of society at the time did indeed contribute to helping women get the vote, and ultimately, the Representation of the People Act was a parliamentary decision. Hence, there are various other factors which should be discussed as well, in order to clarify the case. First of all, evidence indicated that the First World War provided women with the ability to take on the work that men did prior to the war, which was mostly physical labour. This involved work such as carpentry and engineering; work that women had previously not been permitted to do.
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The Sankey report of 1919 concluded that nationalisation should continue. Although this did not happen, the war had given the miners a taste of the way the coal industry could and should, in their opinion, be run. However, once the mines were returned to the mine owners, the workers again became discontented with their conditions of work and pay. The main reason the Prime minister, Lloyd George, a Liberal, did not take over the mines was that he thought it would be wrong for a government to own and support an industry that was supposed to be trading on the free market.
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The extent in which politics liberalised women can however be seen as quite minor, due to women's role in politics remaining badly underrepresented, with a prime example of this being of the numbers of female MPs. There were only 24 female MPs out of a total 630 in the House of Commons, and after the general election in February 1974, there were still only 23 out of 635. This shows how women's participation in political affairs during the 1960's was still very limited, and the traditions of British politics being male dominated continued.
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Source 12 page 161 shops the "contribution" of the civilians was "gallant" and the source is from 1981 suggesting it is trustworthy as it would have viewed other sources and made a conclusion. The Battle of Britain showed that the British were well prepared as once the British attacked the bombers instead of the fighters, they were destroying many more German planes. This led to the Germans losing more planes than the British. The British pulled together again and started producing 563 planes per month meaning on September 17th, the Germans called off their invasions.
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Churchill uses the evacuation for propaganda purposes to boost-morale and show the unity of Britain. From the speech we can see that it was delivered the day after the evacuation of Dunkirk and that it was also an announcement to the public. These 2 factors suggest that Churchill had reasons to exaggerate the success of the evacuation, making the source limited. From our own knowledge, we can say the source is useful because we know that over 350,000 men were evacuated, when only 50,000 were expected.
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Britain went to war in August 1914 because the Government was committed to supporting France. Explain why you agree or disagree
Shortly before war broke out, Britain sent an ultimatum to Germany stating that if Germany failed to respect Belgian neutrality then Britain would go to war. The Germans rejected this demand stating they were not honouring Belgian neutrality unlike France, who chose to respect their neutrality. The German strategy was based upon a plan created years before by Schlieffen and is now commonly referred to as 'The Schlieffen Plan'. The Plan concentrated on pushing 90% of German forces onto France in the hope of crushing France quickly and decisively before Russia mobilised their army, who had been known to mobilise slowly in the past due to the sheer size of their army.
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Naturally when war was announced this reflected very poorly on Chamberlain and lead to an increasingly negative perception of the British government. This early blunder would soon lead to Chamberlain's resignation, as Britain needed a prime minister it could rely on. The government as a whole wanted to present a united front in order to keep morale up. They knew from the start that Britain was at a disadvantage in terms of resources and needed everyone to pull together; their role was going to change dramatically as they would have to start enforcing participation in the war effort.
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We work long hard days as men did and we have successfully managed to do the same as they did! We may not be as physically strong in some cases but women have more endurance than men which means we can work in factories producing goods and keep production lines going as much as men. What jobs have they done?
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Therefore, if the government were giving into aggression then it would be seen as giving into terrorism. On the other hand, it could be found that Lloyd George was only using criticism of violence as an excuse to not giving women the right to vote. In 1906 to 1914, all female suffrage bills failed. The parliament debated out other issues until the time had run out. Therefore, none of the bills were passed. Source B is targeting men but is also trying to demonstrate a message to the suffragettes.
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How did some women try to force to government to employ more women? Emmeline Pankhurst, a leading suffragette, campaigned vigorously with one of her daughters, Christabel, to have women more involved in the war effort. The Pankhursts organised "The Right to Serve" procession in 1915 in which 60,000 women took part. The government was soon forced to change its mind and allow women into industry and other traditionally "male" jobs. It was the only way to keep up production.
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Why did the Government decide to evacuate children from Britains major cities during the early years of the Second World War?
Once war had begun the government had expected total war, meaning that as well as soldiers, civilians were now targets in war. Experts estimated that enemy bombers would kill ten thousand people every day. The aspect of total war had been demonstrated by the Luftwaffe in the sleepy market town of Guernica in Northern Spain during the Spanish Civil war.
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Interpretation 1 - Haig was a Butcher Those who believe Haig was a butcher, think he made many tactical mistakes. The initial artillery bombardment used poor quality shells. Many failed to go off, the remainder being underpowered with no chance of destroying reinforced concrete German dug-outs. He also assumed the bombardment would destroy the barbed wire, which the German's had laid out in defence. Instead, it threw the wire into the air, bringing it down in even more of a tangle.
- Word count: 1927