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GCSE: Britain 1905-1951
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- Marked by Teachers essays 7
- Peer Reviewed essays 5
What does the social welfare legislation pass between 1906 and 1911 reveal about the intentions of Lloyd George and the Liberal government?5 star(s)
There was the National Insurance act aimed to help the sick and unemployed workers therefore hopefully helping the economy and reducing poverty because of workers who were unable to work. There was also the Old Age Pensions act which aimed to help the older population by introducing pensions. It has been said that the Liberals believed a healthy and well educated work force was essential so they introduced these reforms to achieve this. The New Liberals argued that there were circumstances where state intervention could help improve people's lives.
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Also, the fighter planes from Germany could only spend 30 minutes over South-East England before having to return to refuel, this sometimes resulted in Bombers being left behind and then destroyed by British fighter planes and anti-aircraft weaponry. This period of time was called the Battle of Britain, as Britain fought alone to keep the Germans from invading. Before the war had started, Britain had developed radar in which meant the British knew when Luftwaffe formations were on their way, giving them time to prepare and get their planes in the air when needed, cutting down fuel waste as there was no need to patrol the skies.
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These were shown on the radio, in newsreels in the cinema, on posters, in newspapers and in magazines. Examples of this are shown in Sources B and C. In Source B, the image shows an air raid of a Girls School in the East End near the end of the height of the Blitz in 1943. This image was censored which shows how the government was trying to "hide the truth" in order to keep morale high as the image is very negative as it shows how innocent civilians were killed due to total warfare.
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Churchill uses the evacuation for propaganda purposes to boost-morale and show the unity of Britain. From the speech we can see that it was delivered the day after the evacuation of Dunkirk and that it was also an announcement to the public. These 2 factors suggest that Churchill had reasons to exaggerate the success of the evacuation, making the source limited. From our own knowledge, we can say the source is useful because we know that over 350,000 men were evacuated, when only 50,000 were expected.
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How did some women try to force to government to employ more women? Emmeline Pankhurst, a leading suffragette, campaigned vigorously with one of her daughters, Christabel, to have women more involved in the war effort. The Pankhursts organised "The Right to Serve" procession in 1915 in which 60,000 women took part. The government was soon forced to change its mind and allow women into industry and other traditionally "male" jobs. It was the only way to keep up production.
- Word count: 1392
Why did the Government decide to evacuate children from Britains major cities during the early years of the Second World War?
Once war had begun the government had expected total war, meaning that as well as soldiers, civilians were now targets in war. Experts estimated that enemy bombers would kill ten thousand people every day. The aspect of total war had been demonstrated by the Luftwaffe in the sleepy market town of Guernica in Northern Spain during the Spanish Civil war.
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Interpretation 1 - Haig was a Butcher Those who believe Haig was a butcher, think he made many tactical mistakes. The initial artillery bombardment used poor quality shells. Many failed to go off, the remainder being underpowered with no chance of destroying reinforced concrete German dug-outs. He also assumed the bombardment would destroy the barbed wire, which the German's had laid out in defence. Instead, it threw the wire into the air, bringing it down in even more of a tangle.
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Haig was in charge because his predecessor Sir John. The French had been sacked. French took the blame for what they set out in an earlier post - namely that Britain ended up having to throw its resources into a full scale land war on the Continent, despite having spent the preceding century doing everything to avoid such an eventuality. It has been said that on many occasions that British officers were portrayed as lounging around behind the lines whilst sending the working class soldiers over the top in an act of totally heartless.
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Some men opposed the employment of women in WWI when their work was absolutely crucial. Why did men oppose this?
This, of course, sparked the loathing of women at work, and often led to forms of bullying. "Over and over again the foreman gave me the wrong or incomplete directions..." That statement is a classic example of men trying to drive women away from work. Another reason why men opposed women was over the workmanship. Men were actually concerned over the quality of the products that they were producing. Women did not have any experience in the factory, and the men were worried over what quality of products that were being sent to the front line. Also, women came in with little or no training.
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Explain the Differing Reactions of People in Britain to the Policy of Evacuating Children during the Second World War
In 1944 some children were evacuated back to the countryside when the Germans began to use the V-1 against Britain. The attitudes of parents changed radically between 1939 and 1945, with mass panic and evacuation in 1939, 1940 and 1944. Between these periods however, parents began to call back their children to their homes as they believed that nothing was wrong. A lot of the children that were evacuated were the working-class children who lived in the middle of the large cities.
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Explain the different reactions of people in Britain to the policy of evacuating children during the Second World War
Many of these families wanted to adopt the evacuees at the end of the war but were obliged to send them home to families who the children hardly knew. When asked to take in an evacuee, many country-dwelling families said "we've got no room," and closed the door on the children's faces. These people where then accused of "shirking their responsibilities" by the government who even gave the foster parents an allowance to take care of the child's needs. This was sometimes a welcome relief for the poorer families but more often than not, not enough to sustain safe passage for the child.
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Why did the British government decide to evacuate children from Britains major cities in the early years of the war?
Most governments in Europe feared for their people's welfare. Not only had technology improved greatly since the First World War but it was becoming an era of 'Total War'. Rather than two armies fighting on one battle field, civilians were at risk; towns and cities were being bombed and no one was exempt from the carnage. The introduction of planes in particular meant that Britain's 'island status' and powerful navy, was no longer enough to protect it from attacks. Bombs being dropped from planes were also a huge problem. They didn't always hit their targets and they often didn't explode.
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Keynes, an economist was sent to Washington to negotiate an interest free loan of six billion dollars. But, in July 1946, the Americans gave only 3.75 billion dollars with interest at 2%. One years later this money was gone but industries were recovering. America also helped Britain with the Marshal plan. The labour government of 1945 was involved more than any other government in the country's economy. The Labour Party achieved objectives politician have dreamed about; they succeed in making Britain a welfare state, they applied nationalization, did full employment and open foreign policy.
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Not once in the story does Little Chandler write, but he spends plenty of time imagining fame and indulging in poetic sentiments. He has a whole collection of poetry books but has not the courage to read them to his wife, for example, instead of reciting lines to himself. He constantly thinks about his possible career as poet but he hasn't the will to apply his thoughts. Little Chandler uses his country to dream of success, but at the same time blames it for limiting that success.
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This clearly would not help their efforts to gain the vote. If people are not seeing women as coming away from the sphere they are in and are still not doing, or in the same job field as men then they are not going to get the vote by the end of the war. However, it became clear that the public were starting to take notice. The traditional views began to dissolve and opinions began to change. This is highlighted in source 14, "professional...
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An Allied Blockade remained in force on the border of Germany, preventing food from reaching a starving population. The Allies held the blockade strong until Germany would submit to the unfair terms of the Treaty. Germany never wanted to sign this suicidal contract and the representatives of Germany had no input into the Treaty and did not even know the exact terms of it until presented to them with their population dying out. If Germany did not accept, the Allies would have invaded and, in fact, had started gathering forces before the terms were finally signed at the last minute.
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They thought that this was their chance to impress and to show that they were equal. This was their chance to free themselves from the chains of discrimination and racism. To them, the war was a lifeline where they could prove themselves, whilst earning a wage and supporting their family. Military personnel also felt they had a duty to support the mother country and to help those who were helping them. Country leaders believed this war to be a noble cause where their men could demonstrate their loyalty. Countries' loyalty was pressured into joining the war and fighting for what they most respected at the time.
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Both classes were less independent than the working class women, who went out to work, but they still also had to raise a family put their wage into the house and also got paid less than men. There were women in all of these classes who wanted the vote. But also others who didn't care for the vote. Most men were against women's suffrage, such as the prime minister at the time, Asquith and the liberal leader William Gladstone, who fought against the 1857 matrimonial causes act and continued to oppose extensions for women's rights.
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Do you think that Martin Luther King was the most important factor in improving civil rights during the 1960s?
In April and May of 1963, Birmingham, Alabama was a focal point for the civil rights movement. Birmingham was home to one of the most violent cells of the KKK and violence against black people was so commonplace, especially in the form of explosives so that it was referred to as 'Bombingham'. It was these conditions that led Martin Luther King to organise a series of non-violent protests in the city. These protests were relatively low key and were not very well attended due to the political rivalries between King's organization, the SCLC, and other civil rights organizations like CORE and the NAACP.
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Most of the children would have reacted well to being evacuated, but once they got to their new homes many of their reactions would have changed. They would have begun to miss their parents and they would have felt isolated because they were in a new region, they were away from their homes, family and friends- so everything would have been new and different. Some children had never had what was normal for their middle class foster families such as hot water and clean sheets, and this scared some children as it was so unfamiliar.
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The British had a major advantage: radar. They knew exactly when and where the Germans planned to attack from By the Spring of 1940, 51 radar bases had been built on the southern coast. On 10th July, the battle began the aim of the Germans was to completely destroy the RAF planes. However by the end of July, the Germans lost more planes than the RAF, losing 268 aircraft while the British lost 150. During late August, the Germans started nighttime bombing raids on the cities.
- Word count: 1992
Was the failure to make a breakthrough on the first day of the Somme the result of bad planning by Haig?
But in 1916, the quality of intelligence was exceedingly poor as they could not inspect their trenches and the strength of German trenches varied over the 500km stretch of the front line. The majority of intelligence came from German prisoners, who often gave inaccurate and unreliable reports. Nevertheless, Haig had failed to test one of the vital components of his plan. He believed that the barbed wire, which littered "No-Man's Land", would be destroyed by shrapnel fired from the artillery.
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How useful are sources A, B and C to an historian studying the attitudes of British soldiers to their commander during the First World War? Use Sources A to C and knowledge from you studies in your answer
This source is very similar to the views displayed in Black Adder which happens to be source B. Source B is an excerpt from Black adder. Rowan Atkinson shows us how generals were viewed even up to the late 90s. The actual program aimed to show the soldiers lives in a exaggerated satirical way. A historian could take away the view that soldiers believed the war was futile due to fact they were not gaining any ground - "After sitting here since Christmas 1914, during which millions of men have died and we've advanced no further than an asthmatic ant carrying some heavy shopping."
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Now I am going to look at three sources giving their account on what happened in Dunkirk. Source A can be seen as reliable considering that Commander Thomas Kerr may have been in situations like these in the past and has enough experience to give an open and honest account of the event. On the other hand, the commander is fairly limited on how much of the incident he has seen; it being at night can also make it harder for him to view certain events that he may have missed.
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Poems and stories; official accounts Which of these give a more accurate picture of soldiers experiences on the Western Front?
It describes how traumatic the attacks involving gas were, and the aftermaths which it caused. Owen witnessed many of his fellow men killed and injured due to the mass gas attacks of the German army. The poem was first drafted by Owen in Craiglockhart, Scotland, where he was receiving therapy. He was encouraged to write poetry by his doctor. The experiences of many soldiers were reflected by this poet, as gas attacks caused a lot of pain to all men affected, both physically and mentally.
- Word count: 1611