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GCSE: Britain 1905-1951
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- Marked by Teachers essays 7
- Peer Reviewed essays 5
''Without the First World War British women would not have gained the right to vote in 1918.'' Do you agree or disagree with this interpretation?5 star(s)
This work in factories and other jobs gave women more money and confidence. This confidence meant that women were seen differently, and more able, by many men. This confidence and respect from men helped to gain women the vote in 1918, and was an important contributing factor. The work of women during the war and 1915 munitions crisis gained them respect and made David Lloyd George a great supporter. This led him to later support women's suffrage, due to his respect for the work they had done. Herbert Asquith also seemed to be converted in opinion by the women's war effort.
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`It was virtually impossible to avoid losing a relative or close acquaintance' (2). The severe loss was the most important change in society. The sadness of losing loved ones would have been unbearable. It also had a knock on effect towards industry and unemployment, because some of the people who ran businesses or factories died, it meant they had to shut them down hence the people who had jobs there before were now unemployed. By 1921 unemployment had risen to 2 million. (1) Some businesses were losing trade as well, for instance the staple industries were slowly eroding away because after the war there wasn't such a need for them, they didn't have
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Naturally when war was announced this reflected very poorly on Chamberlain and lead to an increasingly negative perception of the British government. This early blunder would soon lead to Chamberlain's resignation, as Britain needed a prime minister it could rely on. The government as a whole wanted to present a united front in order to keep morale up. They knew from the start that Britain was at a disadvantage in terms of resources and needed everyone to pull together; their role was going to change dramatically as they would have to start enforcing participation in the war effort.
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Why did the British Government decide to evacuate children from Britains major cities in the early years of the Second World War?
This mass building of planes would have scared the British Government as it would have known that the planes could easily be transformed and the vast numbers of planes created would cause catastrophic damage to the country. In order to try and preserve as many lives as possible, the Government would have decided to evacuate the neediest, for example children, the disabled and pregnant women. The countryside could not accommodate all of the needy so sites that would cause the most damage if bombed were designated as zones to move as many people out as possible.
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So, the Liberals showed no sympathy for the women and their cause. The Labour Party however, supported the Suffragettes and felt they deserved the vote. The Labour newspapers at this time were against the Cat and Mouse Act and reported all the stories that unfolded about it. Ramsay MacDonald and Keir Hardie marched for the women in their various demonstrations to help achieve them the vote. Ramsay MacDonald visited the women who were in prison and this was reported in newspapers showing a sympathetic biased side to the situation.
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They consider it completely unjust. They consider it a slanderous insult towards womankind because they believe that women should have the vote; that they deserve it and that it's their entitlement. Q2. Study Sources B and C. Does Source B support the evidence of Source C about the suffragette campaign? A2 Source B is written by a woman called Marie Corelli. The book is called 'Woman or Suffragette' and this title sets the tone for the extract. The use of the word 'or' means that if you are female you are either woman or suffragette - not both.
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Why did the British Government decide to evacuate children from Britains major cities in the early years of the war?
and the Italian invasion of Abyssinia (1935), Hitler concluded that the League were clearly not going to be an obstacle in his occupation of the rest of Europe. Despite Britain wanting to remain peaceful while they rebuilt their economy, they became increasingly worried that war would become inevitable if negotiations were not made with Germany. Already Hitler had opposed the Treaty of Versailles by remilitarising the Rhineland and rebuilding his army, though Britain and France had done nothing about this.
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Public places such as Cinemas, theatres were closed and football matches were banned. However, for the sake of morale, regulations were relaxed by the end of 1939. In 1940, France was defeated by the Nazis and the British were left alone against the Germans who's invasion was apparently imminent. The Emergency Powers Act of May 1940 gave authorities full power. To confuse the Germans, signposts, place-names and station name-boards were removed. Rationing of bacon, butter, cheese and meat was introduced.
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The first thing that helped the decline was the lack of competitiveness of Britain's industries. They failed to develop during the industrial revolution, they kept the old machines and so weren't efficient any more. These industries also had a tendency in short-termism, which is concentrating on immediate profit at the expense of long term security. These industries had low productivity because of the fact that they had old machines and low investments they failed to develop. After the war, Britain had debts and had seen its political position in Europe lowered, so it tried to maintain a costly world role.
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How did life for a typical soldier serving in a trench on the western front during the First World War compare with a parliamentary infantryman serving in the English Civil War?
The king refused to compromise with the Puritans who wanted their own privileges and more power for themselves. Charles I dissolved Parliament and locked out the members for 11 years from 1629-1640. It then led to a war between the supporters of the King and supporters of the Parliament. Those who supported the King were often the lords, and those who supported parliament were often country gentlemen and merchants. The First World War started with a murder. In June 1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie visited the Austrian-Hungarian province of Bosnia. On June 28, they were shot in the streets of the capital Sarajevo which was what triggered the whole event.
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How Far was Haig responsible for the failings of the British War effort on the Western Front in 1916 and 1917
The war had turned into a war of attrition with both sides just sending men to attack the other sides' trenches then retreating meaning no one gained or lost land but huge casualties were endured by both sides. Haig was accepted by most to be the best man for the job. He had no experience in trench warfare, but no one did, the trench warfare system was new to everyone. At his previous battles against South Africa he had fought on open plains - completely different to the muddy mess he had inherited on the Western Front.
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Women over the age of 30 gained the vote in 1918 mainly because of womens contribution to the war effort. Do you agree?
This was important because women could co-ordinate events from one office, which highlighted that women could act with in a democracy as if they were in a political group. Furthermore, the Suffragists were important as they reflected women's determination. This was shown when the Conciliation Bill was put forward and rejected three times yet it did not stop women from campaigning. This emphasised the strength of the suffrage campaigner's will. On the other hand, to some extent the Suffragists made negative contributions to women obtaining the vote.
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Assimilation. The problem with immigration in Britain was that the people werent coming from the same country or origins. Instead they appeared from many different colonies that all differed from each other in terms of language and traditions.
Many people say that the concept of assimilation was flawed and that Enoch Powell was a racist but was his speech based on facts and evidence or did he merely dislike immigrants. One of the main reason assimilation was flawed was because coloured people and white British people couldn't co exist peacefully. White people clearly outlined their thoughts on coloured immigrants using petty excuses such as saying that they stink and one white woman felt it was wrong to raise her children with black neighbours.
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Also, it is only a snapshot taken by a photographer, the people involved in the photo could even be 'posing' for the camera and from my own knowledge, many children would normally be extremely upset to leave their own homes and families behind to other foster parents for periods of time, this makes the source limited. The second source I will discuss is Source B which is an interview from a teacher telling her story about how she was evacuated with other children from her school during the year 1988.
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Sometimes the un chosen children even had to sleep on the floor of the village hall. By Christmas in 1939 there had been no further bombings so most of the children were sent home once again. But by 1940 after France had been felled by the Germans, Britain was afraid that she would be invaded so the evacuation scheme started all over again. The Experience of the Evacuees The experience of being evacuated would have been very strange but different to all who took part. Some would have had a positive or negative experience and some would have had both.
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The Front line was the most dangerous because it was amid all the fighting and heavy fire. They were dug deep down to cancel out the enemy's better position for snipers and sentry turrets. There was a mass of barbed wire ahead which contributed to preventing the German's clear access into the trench but there was no real safety from any shells that made their way in apart from sandbags that also supported the foundations. It was hell in the Front line and you never knew which second was going to be your last but soldiers could be placed there for up to two months.
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Source B shows British morale on the verge of collapse due to relentless enemy bombing. This source is useful since it is taken at the time of the Blitz and provides a much more realistic view of the Blitz compare with the one shown in source C. The government censored this photo because they knew that pictures of dead civilian would further demoralize the people and encourage them to abandon and leave the city. As a result, there would be an economic standstill and the withdrawal of troops since people who left the city no longer supported the war-effort.
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"Without the First World War, British women would not have gained the right to vote in 1918" - how far do you agree?
It would be worth noting that the statement was made in March 1908, nearly two years after their move from Manchester to London, in late 1906. So then it wouldn't be surprising to find that after this speech in June 1908, the first ever window-smashers took their decisive action to Downing Street, by hurling stones and insults at Number 10. These actions and others assisted in the general loss of support from the public, meaning the movement would now need a significant boost to its public relations if it were to succeed it its aim.
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It will also touch on why it could not be justified, including how it encouraged Hitler to become more aggressive, gave time for Hitler to prepare for war etc. The first reason why it could be justified was because the major appeasement happened in 1938, where they gave Hitler Sudetenland at the Munich. Britain only began to prepare for war in 1936, and was not planned for completion until the 1940s. When the crisis happened in 1938, Britain's military was poorly equipped and the army was too small.
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Moreover, you have the continuous notion that people did not know the outcome of their work, or the purpose of the work done within the other huts. In some aspects, what the code breaker in source C has wrote is often similar to what the previous workers also wrote. For example, the source continues to mention the secrecy kept within the huts. Because there was such a crucial need for it, the workers did not know whether their breakthroughs were futile or not, for if the code they cracked had no significant meaning, then it would clearly be a waste of time if they received simultaneous discoveries which were of no value.
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This source tells us about what conditions factory workers lived and worked in. There is also a source from a book published in 1835 written by Edward Baines, a news paper editor who defended mill owners and how they ran their mills. However this source contradicts us because it shows a clear factory with nice machinery which makes us believe that life was easy but if we compare it with the report published in 1833 there is not a trace of similarity, unlike the source which is a picture that comes from The Adventures of Michael Armstrong, Factory boy by Francis Trollope, 1840.
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Haig was an uncaring general who sacrificed the lives of his soldiers for no good reason. How far do the sources support this view?
Most of what is said in Source C agrees with the statement, and it was taken from an interview years after the battle. Private George Coppard says there were "hundreds of dead" and that "it was clear that there were no gaps in the wire at the time of the attack", so he was saying the battle had not gone well. He criticises Haig saying, "How did the planners imagine that Tommies would get through the wire?" which shows George Coppard agreeing with the statement, and showing Haig did not think through the plan.
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This is the first main difference between the sources. Sources 2 and 3 are both taken after war had ceased and so they had seen Haig in action and could judge him with justification, as they had experienced Haig's tactics, and are very bitter from it, 'I'm very bitter and always will be, and everyone else that knew him' [Fred Pearson]. However, we see that source 1 is yet to witness Haig in action, and portrays Haig in a good light.
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Does the evidence of Source C support the evidence of Sources A and B about women's work in the First World War? Explain your answer. Source C is part of a book written by the owner of a Birmingham factory in 1917. This source is reliable as it is written at the time of the war, so the factory owner can give a very accurate account of what it was and is like. The owner talks about how women prefer the new factory life, "Typical cases which have come under my personal observation show that women prefer factory life".
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This is because men believed women only cared about unimportant subjects. Men believed women should just be ordinary housewives and shouldn't have the rights to vote as their duty is just to stay at home and cook and clean for the family. The poster shows if a man can be such failures in life, yet still gain the right to vote, whilst on the other hand a woman can be of many successful things in life yet still not gain the right to vote, shows the law was extremely unfair, especially towards women.
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