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GCSE: Britain 1905-1951
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In what ways and with what success did successive British governments seek to promote disarmament and international harmony during the 1920(TM)s?
Continued German bitterness towards the Treaty of Versailles and the determination of France to extract from Germany the full demands of the Treaty ensured that peace and harmony was not guaranteed. In order to answer this question we must be aware that British foreign policy was not conducted by one government but a succession of different governments led by different parties and Foreign Ministers. Ranging from Lloyd George and the Liberals until 1922 and a range of Conservative and Labour Governments until 1929 it is possible to see a main thread which aimed to ensure that Europe remained at peace during this difficult period.
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(TM)Why did Britain fail to confront Germany over the occupation of the Czech city of Prague in March 1939, but declare war on Germany six months later over the threat to the largely German city of Denzig?
There were, of course, specific reasons why Poland was viewed as more worthy of British support than the Czech crisis. To begin with, Poland was viewed as a strong good potential ally to have. Her military position was strong, arguably stronger than the USSR whom she had beaten in the recent Russo-Polish war. The guarantee that Britain gave Poland, which later obliged her to fight for Polish independence, was also an attempt to deter further German aggression, by showing Britain would stand Hitler's actions no longer.
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Employment for women was a contrast between social classes. In 1861, women outnumbered men in textile factories, yet many middle class women were unemployed because it was more acceptable in society for them to be reliant on husbands. It was believed that many jobs were too much for a woman to handle - however some women were proving this to be wrong. The first female doctors graduated in 1866, making a clear example for others. It was a very different story for working class women.
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Middle class women with good connections made use of these and found ways to contact politicians through their husbands and family members. However, a lot of effort was being made with little progress. The campaign received some support from men, including John Stuart Mill, the MP for Westminster. He raised the issue of women's votes in Parliament, but was often laughed at. It is important to note that a small number of men supported the NUWSS and played a small but important part in the campaign.
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However the question still remains whether this investment was justified and if it was money well spent. When World War Two broke out on the 3rd of September 1939 Bomber Command's capability was restricted to small numbers of slow aircraft carrying primitive navigation equipment including sextants. In order not to provoke Germany, Bomber Command's early flights were merely to drop propaganda leaflets. However there were many major successes by bomber command as the war progressed, for example in 1942 the attack on U-boat factories in Bremen hampered German U-boat production significantly thus assisting in the overall success in the battle of the Atlantic.
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There was great competition, especially between Germany and Britain, to get a larger and more powerful empire. Alsace-Lorraine had recently been taken from France by Germany and they wanted revenge. Germany was in fear of a French attack. This is why Germany made an alliance with Austria-Hungary in 1879. Italy joined to form the Triple Alliance because it was angry with France for stopping its plans to colonise North Africa. France enlisted the help of Russia, who had borders with both Germany and Austria-Hungary. In 1907, Britain joined Russia and France to form the Triple Entente because it wanted an ally among the five great powers of Europe, but was not prepared to ally with Germany after the Boer War.
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Why did the British government decide to evacuate children from Britain(TM)s major cities in the early years of the Second World
They used zeppelins and Gotha bombers. Gotha bombers were the first bombers. They managed to cause a lot of fear after 498 people died. Not only that but the war between Italy and Abyssinia (Ethiopia) in 1935 where Italy bombed the Abyssinians. Then Hitler ordered the Luftwaffe to bomb the city of Gerurnica, testing out his new bombers. He basically raised it to the ground to show how strong his air force was, he destroyed 3/4 of it. Now it was total war where air forces could win wars by dropping so many bombs on the enemy cities that they would have to surrender.
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The Plague, also known as the Black Death, was a disease that was extremely deadly. It was thought that there were 2 types of plague during this period. These are called Bubonic plague and pneumonic plague. Bubonic plague is the weakest form of the plague, and would take weeks to kill the infected person. Bubonic plague was called Bubonic because of the bubons (lumps) which appeared on the body, most commonly found on the legs and under the armpits. The term black death came from this type of the plague, this is because of the bubons (lumps)
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IT WAS THE WORK THAT THE SOMEN DID DURING THE WAR THAT EARNED THEM THE VOTE(TM) USE SOURCES H, I AND YOUR OWN KNOWLEDGE TO EXPLAIN WHETHER YOU AGREE WITH THIS INTERPETATION
This is because Herbert Asquith who was Prime minister at the time of suffrage campaigning was against women suffrage. In 1917 he was no longer Prime minister and David Lloyd George came into power and was part of the liberals who were to a certain extent for women suffrage as a result of the suffragist campaign. This shows that women's war effort was not the reason for them gaining the right to vote. Women had preformed services for the government before the war like being nurses, doctors, mayors and mothers.
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These two sources are not bout Haig and the battle of the Somme. How far do you agree that they have no use for the historian studying Haig and the Battle of the Somme?
Blackadder comes across as someone who is professional, realistic and knows what will happen from passed knowledge. Lieutenant George seems someone who signed up to join war due to the propaganda. He is posh, maybe from university with a very poor knowledge and confusion on what is going on. George seems very enthusiastic because of this. Although it was not written about the Somme it does talk about ?the strategy Haig used while also suggesting that it was ?inevitable that lots of people would die: "Are we all going to get ?killed?
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On 27 May 1940, Gort was instructed to abandon any co-operation with the French and to evacuate France through Dunkirk. When British forces tried to leave through the bay, they left behind most of their equipment in France. The task of getting to Calais seemed impossible as it had already been taken over, and Belgian forces had surrendered to the German Army.
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Source B is of significant value to a historian writing about the Conservative revival after the 1945 general election defeat. Firstly, the chairman at the time of the revival period; Lord Woolton talks about how the party had grown up after conflict within the party in the previous years, this shows that disunity within the Conservative party may have played a part in them losing the general election and now that they are once again unified, they stand a much better chance of being elected.
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What types of jobs did they do? Many new jobs became open to women; air-raid wardens, fire officers, evacuation officers, host families for evacuees, and so on. The novelty of women workers wore off more quickly than during the Second World War, because women were doing so in such large numbers. Women workers were taken for granted. Eight times as many women were working in the Second World War than in the first. For example, during World War 1, the Women's Land Army was employing 33,000 women.
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Germany was also beginning to feel threatened, as members of the Triple Entente surrounded them. For these reasons in the years leaded up to the First World War there was a lot of under surface tension. Germany was fastly becoming one of the greatest powers in Europe, and by 1918 unarguably was one of the greatest and powerfulest countries in Europe.
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To what extent was splendid isolation(TM) the most important factor of British foreign policy between 1902 and 1939?
Japan agreed to do the same for Britain. Both countries also agreed terms over trading in china. This allowed Britain to withdraw ships from Asia, leaving the two-power standard intact. Britain also signed an entente with France in 1904, forming an agreement over both French interests in morocco, and British interests in Egypt. Another entente was signed with Russia in 1907, protecting British interests in India and Russian interests in Afghanistan. This series of ententes also helped Britain to protect her economy, as well as her empire.
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The Source by Sir Joseph Balls suggests that the BBC was possibly under Labour control. He goes on to explain that the BBC granted attention to left-wing writers and politicians and therefore many of their news reports and talks were left-wing. At the time the BBC was the only TV Channel and therefore everyone watched it, and although this source represents one point of view it can be argued that Labour made the best use of the left-wing support from the BBC to target everyone who watched TV.
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To what extent was the assassination of the archduke of Austria the most important turning point in British foreign policy between 1902 and 1939?
The assassination of the archduke Franz Ferdinand happened on June 28th 1914. He was shot dead while visiting Sarajevo, by the Serb gavrilo princip. Germany then encouraged Austro-Hungary to declare war on Serbia, who held an alliance with Russia. This led to Germany invading France through Belgium on the 3rd of august, 1914. Despite the fact that the assassination didn't affect Britain directly, the fact that Germany had attacked through Belgium meant that Britain had little choice but to go to war with Germany, as Britain had, in 1839, signed a treaty guaranteeing Belgian independence.
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This source tells us about what conditions factory workers lived and worked in. There is also a source from a book published in 1835 written by Edward Baines, a news paper editor who defended mill owners and how they ran their mills. However this source contradicts us because it shows a clear factory with nice machinery which makes us believe that life was easy but if we compare it with the report published in 1833 there is not a trace of similarity, unlike the source which is a picture that comes from The Adventures of Michael Armstrong, Factory boy by Francis Trollope, 1840.
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The House of Lords was the same, the only way of becoming a Lord was to inherit the title and position, making the House of Lords a very exclusive and conservative House. At this time, a severely small percentage of the population controlled British politics. Other problems in the early nineteenth century included the open voting. The fact that there was no secret ballot made it possible for candidates to bribe the voters. This began to change by means of reform under the Liberal government.
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He gives no mention of any type of fight back against the Germans and it gives an impression that the British were very much helpless and as he says 'The beaches were jammed with soldiers' this also shows no organisation as they are in no way described as being in lines or any structure. This source at first seems fairly unreliable as he is German and may be wanting too glorify the German attack. But when you look closely he describes 'I hated Dunkirk' you wouldn't accept this off someone trying too make it seem a good thing.
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Why did the British Government decide to evacuate children from Britain(TM)s major cities in the early years of the Second World War?
They also evacuated them because of a couple of different reasons like ''children are the future of the nation'' and to keep adults focused on the war effort was an important reason for evacuating the children. The British Government evacuated children during World War Two because it would reduce the civilian death rate which would mean morale would stay high. For example, in autumn 1940, London got bombed for seventy five days out of seventy six and in 1936 there was a Spanish civil war and the major cities were the targets, so this encouraged the Government to keep the children out of the major cities so the same thing would not happen to the British.
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Why did the British Government decide to evacuate children from Britains major cities in the early years of the Second World War?
Furthermore, children will take up key jobs after the war, so the Government needs to protect and evacuate the children so then there are some people to take up the key jobs when they are needed. Lastly, there had been major developments in technology since World War One so air attacks on cities would be more likely which would mean that the country needed to keep the children safe from the air attacks. The British Government evacuated children during World War Two because it would reduce the civilian death rate which would mean morale would stay high.
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The sinking of the Lusitania brought America into the war because it was sunk by a U-boat and killed 1200 people,125 people were American this caused a huge out-cry because America wasn't even in the war at the time. This meant the war at sea was very important in the defeat of Germany because America were a very big help by bringing new troops and resources they also supplied new support and weapons. The battle of Jutland was fought between the British and German fleets in the North Sea in 1916; Jutland was the biggest naval battle of WW1.The battle came to an end, and both sides claimed victory.
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After the evacuation at the fall of France, Hitler waited before attacking Britain. This was for two reasons; the first was that he could not use his blitzkrieg tactic over the channel, and the second was that he thought Britain would want to make a peace agreement with Germany. This time gave Britain the chance to build up supplies and troops, which proved very important. After Dunkirk, there was only one complete regiment in Britain, which was Canadian. Within a month, 16 regiments had been mobilised to the south-east.
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