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GCSE: Germany 1918-1939
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This point was very significant to Hitler becoming Chancellor. If they had not acquired so many seats in the Reichstag now Hitler and the Nazis would have probably remained a small party. But after the depression the Nazis maintained a high amount of seats in parliament, becoming the biggest party in the Reichstag in 1933, when Hitler became Chancellor of Germany. However the impact of the depression can only partly explain Hitler becoming Chancellor in 1933. Another factor was the weaknesses of the Weimar Republic.
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I am also going to discuss some other factors in the Nazi curriculum, such as the heavy influence on education of Nazi ideals, and the preparation of women to be mothers and housewives. In my initial answer to the statement, I disagree that this was the main purpose. There are many ways in which this statement can be considered incorrect because, in English lessons, children were taught to analyse the speeches of Hitler, and texts about the Hitler Myth. Children began to develop Nazi ideals, such as that the 'Fuhrer' (Adolf Hitler)
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A further fall in unemployment came when Hitler brought about rearmament and introduced conscription. Although the newly employed were earning little, at least they were receiving money. To people who had been unemployed and starving, 'work and bread' was something amazing. Also, the schemes meant that new facilities were being constructed in Germany benefitting the German people further. However, it did come at a cost. To achieve this, many Jews and women were sacked and replaced with non-Jewish men. People who were already working also benefitted. Workers were allowed to go on holidays for the first time.
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Hitler turned into a bit of a celebrity which no doubt helped him into power in 1932. As a result of the Munich Putsch Hitler spent nine months in the Landsberg prison and he was banned from speaking publicly. The Nazi party was also banned. However, whilst in prison Hitler learnt many lessons.
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This situation was a godsend for the Nazi Party as it enabled them to gain public support. Having lost faith in what they already felt was an indecisive Government, and after the 'stab in the back' myth having been circulated throughout the country, Germany became increasingly hard to govern. Hitler, an inspiring and energetic speaker, took this opportunity to present himself and the Nazi party to the German people.
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So, Hitler adopted strong anti-Semitic policies; they were not the most popular of his decisions, but they were carried out with great strength. There were 5 main stages to the persecution of the Jews: * Livelihoods were attacked, * They were singled out, * Nuremburg Laws, * Violence, * Final Solution. At first, the Jews' livelihoods were attacked. Many of them were sacked from their jobs, such as those who were teachers and doctors. They weren't allowed to serve on a jury or work with Aryans.
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Hitler also helped the army and the unemployed by introducing conscription. This created a larger army and also gave those men conscripted jobs. Hitler also made more money available for the army. On July the first 1934, the night of the long knives, Hitler eliminated key SA members. This destroyed a potential opponent for the army. The SA were also said to be like thugs so by eliminating them It seemed that he was helping the general people by removing a thuggish group of people and replacing them with a more disciplined group, the SS.
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“After the Putsch failed Hitler decided to use democratic methods to become leader of Germany”3 star(s)
Instead of violent, illegal acts, i.e. The Munich Putch, he realised that if a Democratic approach was taken on his actions then this would help him succeed and instead of seen as trying to rebel against the government, he was seen as trying to make Germany a better place. This shows that Hitler's methods did change since being arrested and put into Prison. In order to use this new method, Hitler and the Nazi Party needed to attract votes from the German people.
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The Hitler Youth group was an extremely military-styled youth group. The members were indoctrinated to accept discipline as soldiers would and as they would do in a tyranny. This would have therefore allowed Hitler to take control of these vulnerable minds and impose from the offset their message and tasks.
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In order to cleanse German culture of "un-Germanic" writings, these books were torched in bonfires. A century earlier, Heinrich Heine-a German poet of Jewish origin-had said, "Where one burns books, one will, in the end, burn people." In Nazi Germany, eight years passed between the burning of books to the burning of Jewish bodies in death camps. A major development in the Nazi campaign against Jews was the passing of the Nuremburg Laws in September 1935. The first law, 'The Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honour', prohibited marriages and extramarital intercourse between "Jews" (the name was now officially used in place of "non-Aryans")
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All of these assumptions were made during Lubbe's confessions and are supported in source B. Source B states that Lubbe set fire to the Reichstag himself and that no other communists helped him. The two previous justifications both show that Source B only supports Source A by the fact that van der Lubbe started the Reichstag Fire by himself and not with the support of other communists. However, this is only helpful is both the sources are reliable and true- therefore the provenance must also be analysed.
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At this time, Germany was in a mess because, harvests were poor and unemployment was very high. Also the treaty of Versailles had been signed, and millions of Germans felt the treaty was a disgrace to the country. Britain, USA and France had takes land and money from Germany however; Germany couldn't attack as one of the terms in the treaty was to reduce their army. When Hitler became leader of the Nazi Party, he he said the treaty was unfiar and he said that any land taken away from Germany must be returned.
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With the reference of all the three cases of Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy and Militarist Japan in the inter-war period, explain why the dictators were so appealing to their people.
Therefore, people wanted a strong leader and government to restore national glory, economic strength and social order. This created an opportunity for Benito Mussolini to rise to power. In1919, he formed the Fascist Party and in 1922 he seized power and later declared himself Il Duce of Italy. Under his rule, the Fascist party was well organized and well disciplines. It also followed an expansionist foreign policy, which help him gain support from his people. Germany faced more serious problems than Italy. The Germans felt resentful, humiliated and frustrated over the Treaty of Versailles since Germany had to give up all its colonies and pay a huge indemnity.
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The leaders from both parties were arrested and their newspapers were shut down The Enabling Law The election took place in March - though Hitler was convinced it would be the last. Hitler did not get the number of votes he wanted but he did get enough to get over a 50% majority in the Reichstag: 17 m voted for the Nazis After the burning down of the Reichstag, politicians had nowhere to meet. The Kroll Opera House in Berlin was chosen.
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The White Rose Movement. The White Rose were a non-violent resistance group in Nazi Germany, consisting of students from the University of Munich
Why did they do it? The White Rose was motivated by ethical and moral considerations. They came from various religious backgrounds and had witnessed the atrocities of the war on the battlefield and against the civilian population in the East of Germany. By February 1943, the young friends sensed the reversal of fortune that the Wehrmacht suffered at Stalingrad would eventually lead to Germany's defeat.
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In addition to this, the Enabling Act was important to Hitler because it gave the Nazis certainty. Relying on threats and the support of other parties wasn't ideal because it was unpredictable, but the Enabling Act guaranteed that any law would be passed with nothing more than Hitler's signature. This also meant that the Nazis could pass laws very quickly, which would prove very beneficial in a time of crisis, when swift action could prevent the collapse of law and order.
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Whilst this allowed families to recuperate after the war, it put the country's budget into a dilemma. The state could not afford to pay all of its workers and so many Germans were dismissed and many of the remaining Germans had a pay-cut. This, in turn, meant that there was not a lot of money to be spent on the industry and other parts of the citizen's lifestyle. The German industry was suffering as with a low population and no money remaining in the country's budget, many factories, which brought money into Germany, were forced to shut down due to debt and a lack of funding.
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Although many of the revolters surrendered, it did not stop the Freikorps killing them. There were also rebellions from the Right Wing who wanted Germany to have a strong army, to regain its territory and have an empire. They felt that the Treaty of Versailles had been cruel on the German as a country and wanted to reclaim what had been taken away from it. One of the first rebellions by the Freikorps was the Kapp Putsch. Wolfgang Kapp, the 62 year old leader, led 5000 people into Berlin. Luckily for the Weimar Republic, the German people came to their aid. A city-wide strike was declared leaving Berlin with no transport, power or water.
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Study representation 1 and 2. They are both representations of how the Nazis were able to control Germany in the year 1933-1939. How far do these representations differ?
Representation one is a Nazi propaganda poster produced in the 1930's. It denotes a typical Nazi characteristic which can be found in essentially, all of their posters; their ideologies in the form of people. The family are Aryan, a race which Hitler strongly advocated. And, predictably, he represents the family to be happy and settled down. The family are enveloped by an Eagle. Eagles represent strength and shelter, the party carefully utilised the symbolism to promote their party, but more than anything, to endorse the Aryan race. The father is publicised in a way which makes him look masculine and handsome, he is also positioned higher than his wife, showing that he is the 'bread winner' thus; he is carrying a traditional family role.
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How reliable is source E to a historian writing about the events on Kristallnacht, use source E and F and your own knowledge to support your answer.Both source E and F are from a newspaper article explaining the events of Kristallnacht.
The city of Kurfurstendamm that is written about in source E does exist. The language of the article may have been exaggerated to get people to buy the newspaper to do this they made the story shocking and interesting by the use of exaggerated and violet language. Or it could have been written this way just to get the message across of what the event. The words that were used were words such as ; bawling raucous gangs, drunken and aflame.
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In this Essay I am going to discuss the effects that Hitlers persecution on the Jews had on the Frank family in World War 2.
At the beginning when Anne and Peter meet I think they did get on very well. I thought that Margrot would fall in love with Peter and Anne would be rejected and they would not form a strong relationship. I was wrong and in the end Anne and Peter have their kiss. There were lots of times when Hitler's regime to kill all the Jews changed their relationships. The main time I find this is that Anne and Peter would not have known each other if they did not go in to hiding. This is because they were different kind of people.
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Many Germans were retrenched, or they lost their jobs overnight. Those who were still in work suffered from lower wages and short-term work. Millions also found themselves hungry, while thousands of families could not afford to rent and became homeless. Hitler took advantage of the impact of the Great Depression by criticizing the failure of the Weimar Government in addressing the problems that arose from the crisis.
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The discrimination of the Jews in education had an effect on the Jewish youth isolating and alienating them from other children probably with very little idea of why it was actually happening to them. The Jews were also persecuted socially more than in any other way as they were banned from parks which would have isolated the Jewish community from other local communities forcing them into one group which could be discriminated against with less effort from the Nazis. Encouragement was given to Jews to emigrate from Germany which may have seemed logical at the time with the build up
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the Nazi's did not have many seats (12). However after the wall street crash the Nazi's gained in power. In September 1930, unemployed rose too 3.1 million at 15.3% of the population, Nazi's gained 18.5% of the Reichstag with 107 seats. This shows that when the unemployed levels rose (by 5.3%) the number of seats dramatically rose (by 95 seats).It meant the Nazi's gained in power because it held (16% more of the Reichstag). However there is a number of other factors which could be argued that they let to the rise of the Nazis. An main reason which could be argued cause a large rise in Nazism is their campaigning. The Nazi's campaign methods were modern and effective.
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Both Austria-Hungary and Italy were quite weak and amazingly useless, leaving Germany to do most things alone. In 1915 Italy betrayed the alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary by joining the Triple Entente and declaring war on Austria-Hungary on May 23ed 1915, leaving Germany with the dying Austro-Hungarian Empire as its only ally. Austria-Hungary was not only weak but its people were starving! They even went as far as robbing the food supply sent from Romania, up the Danube1 through Austria- Hungary, to their ally Germany. This almost caused Germany to go to war against Austria-Hungary in July 1918.
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