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GCSE: Germany 1918-1939

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 11
  • Peer Reviewed essays 8
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  1. Marked by a teacher

    Why did Hitler become Chancellor of Germany in 1933?

    5 star(s)

    During the 'roaring twenties' Germans ignored Hitler and he seemed not to worry people too much with his programme of discrimination. But when the Great Depression ruined their lives, he became well noticed and was able to begin his journey to chancellorship. The continuing bitterness that many Germans felt contributed to the deep anger about the First World War and the Treaty of Versailles which was blamed on the government. This created an underlying bitterness to which Hitler's viciousness and thinking appealed to, so they gave him support.

    • Word count: 1519
  2. Marked by a teacher

    Why was Hitler able to become chancellor of Germany in 1933?

    5 star(s)

    Without a strong leader and a weak government made German citizens turn to more extreme groups. The Treaty of Versailles is one of the factors that helped Hitler to become chancellor. The Germans were disgusted by this treaty, devastated and felt bitter at the total sum that had to be paid and accept the war guilt clause. At the end of the year 1922 no reparations had been paid by Germany. This led to a terrible economic crisis caused by the occupation of the Ruhr a (key industrial area of Germany) by the French and Belgian troops. In order to try to pay the reparations, Germany started to print money and it led to a hyper-inflation.

    • Word count: 1966
  3. Marked by a teacher

    Was any one of these reasons more important than the others in Hitler's rise to power?

    5 star(s)

    The desire in Hitler and others around him was one of the most important reasons why Hitler joined politics. He felt that his country had been betrayed by the 'November Criminals' and that the Treaty of Versailles was too harsh and unfair considering many believed that the German army was still unbeaten. Despite all of this, the Treaty of Versailles was also the most important reason on the list because it was so unfair and because of some of the terms for peace which it stipulated. The main problem was the great loss of German land to other countries and the loss of Germany's industrial heartlands in addition to the great level of reparations.

    • Word count: 1026
  4. Marked by a teacher

    Why was the Weimar Republic so unpopular with many Germans between 1919 and 1923?

    4 star(s)

    The workers would still be poor and the rich would still be rich. They wanted the workers to have power. This contributed to the Weimar Republic's early unpopularity because there are a group of people (the communists) who know that they will not agree with the key policies according to them. Hyperinflation made money worthless by 1923. People with savings or pensions suffered a lot. This was a politically a bad start for the Weimar Republic because the people who lost the value of their saved money, blamed the Republic for hyperinflation; they were responsible for printing more and more notes to help pay the reparations.

    • Word count: 1317
  5. Marked by a teacher

    Why did international peace collapse by 1939?

    3 star(s)

    It was the perfect solution to their problems. Before the Treaty of Versailles Germany was a nation that took grate pride in its armed forces, after the were reduced significantly the respect for Germany and its power in Europe was lost, Hitler wanted to re-instate this respect. Next he wanted to unite all German-speaking people in one country: GrossDeutschland. The treaty of Versailles had given each race of people their own country, but this meant that there were many Germans spread all over Europe. If he were to unite them all in one country, he would start having to invade and take over other countries, which could quite easily turn into war.

    • Word count: 1574
  6. Peer reviewed

    Why was Hitler so Popular in 1933?

    3 star(s)

    This connects with my point, Hitler's use of powerful speeches made people vote for him which meant an increase in popularity. Another way he gained reputation was by targeting youths by opening up clubs which proved very enjoyable for young people at that time this was targeted for both boys and girls. The Hitler Youth was Hitler's belief that the future of Nazi Germany was its children. The Hitler Youth was seen as being as important to a child as school was.

    • Word count: 1207
  7. Peer reviewed

    Why did Hindenburg appoint Hitler as Chancellor in 1933?

    3 star(s)

    Each party was doing this for their own reasons however, and where the communists wanted to see a complete breakdown of the system, the Nazi party wanted to prove that the country could not be run without their support. Hitler knew that this would eventually force the government to deal with the party and, in 1932 Hitler was offered the position of Vice-Chancellor under Von-Papen but he refused, demanding that he wanted only to be Chancellor. It is obvious from the evidence above that Hitler was, at this time, in quite a strong position and it was also clear that

    • Word count: 1290
  8. Peer reviewed

    Was Hitler a Totalitarian Dictator?

    3 star(s)

    It should be remembered that governments had been ruling like this for the past three years. Once in power he was able to exploit various situations to gradually dismantle the German democracy. Hitler had been invited into power, you must realize that he was invited into power by people that thought Hitler could be controlled, he wanted to begin to eliminate his opposition, but Germany was a democracy, he couldn't ban opposition parties outright. So he had to wait for an opportunity to do this the Reichstag fire gave him this opportunity.

    • Word count: 1767
  9. Peer reviewed

    Describe How The Nazis Used The Reighstag Fire To Increase Their Power In Germany In The Years 1933-34

    3 star(s)

    The Nazi's wanted to prove that no one could run the country without their support. This would eventually force the government to do a deal with them. In 1932 Hitler was offered to join a Coalition but refused as his demands to be in overall power, was turned down. By November 1932 unemployment had come down to 5 million. The Nazis lost 2.7 million votes and 34 seats in the Reichstag. Then, a politician called Gregor Strasser tried to split the party, but Hitler defeated his attempt.

    • Word count: 1363
  10. One of the key events that contributed Hitlers rise in power was the passing of the Enabling act.

    After the Wall Street Crash, the unemployment leaves rocketed and several Germans were now supporting extremist parties, such as the Nazis and the Communists (KPD), because they promised change as well as stability - explaining the Nazis rise in popularity in the July 1932 elections. Courses implemented by the government to cease the country's suffering had not yet taken effect. Because this slight political obstruction, Hitler to agree to a coalition with President Paul Hindenburg and the Weimar government and during January 1933 he [Hitler] was appointed the chancellor of Germany.

    • Word count: 1029
  11. How important was the Reichstag fire in Hitlers consolidation of power?

    The Reichstag Fire was an important turning point in Hitler's consolidation of power, but perhaps not as important as events like "The Night of the Long Knives" or other factors that had been present since the signing of the Treaty of Versailles. This incident brought the Nazis many advantages and some disadvantages. When the police managed to enter the building they found a man named Marinus Van Der Lubbe, who was a Dutch communist. The fact that he was a communist enabled Hitler to use this against the communists and have 4,000 communist leaders imprisoned days before the elections.

    • Word count: 1584
  12. The Weimar Republic and its opponents.

    With six parties in the Reichstag, it was difficult for the Weimar Republic to be unbiased. Corruption was also likely as parties in the Reichstag were likely to support or hide the crimes of its members from the other parties. For instance, the communists did not condemn the rebellions by communists. Equally, the army led by Von Seeckt was right wing and enjoyed putting down the Communist revolts of 1923. Moreover, the Kapp Putsch was led by a right winger, so the army and Freikorps refused to help. This showed that even the army could not be trusted.

    • Word count: 1202
  13. How far did the Weimar Republic achieve Financial and Political stability in the 1920s?

    By 1919, Germany was bankrupt; and the reparation bill reached �6600M in 1921, to be paid at a rate of �100M per year, an impossible figure. After failing to make the 1922 payment, the French invaded Germany's industrial region, the Ruhr. In response, the workers there went on strike; the Weimar government backed them, and decided to print more money to pay their debts. This however, led to Hyperinflation, and the German people suffered greatly. Money became worthless; the price of a loaf of bread rose from less than a single mark, to over 2 trillion from the years 1919 to 1923.

    • Word count: 1301
  14. Why were Hitler and the Nazi Party able to come to power in 1933, when they had failed in 1923?

    Everybody was happy to have a little extra money in their pockets, so were happy under Stresemann. Though there was an under-lying feeling of discontent from the farmers and middle class citizens. The farmers made up a third of the jobs in Germany. This led to the fact that there was too much corn in Germany, so food prices were low, and farmers were barely getting enough to pay off their debts. Meanwhile, the middle class citizens were un-happy due to having lost all their savings in the hyper-inflation before 1923. They felt no one was sticking up for them.

    • Word count: 1317
  15. Representations 1,2 and 3 all give an idea of how the Nazis were so effective in controlling Germany in the years 1933-1939. Representation one is a Nazi propaganda poster created to gain support from the German population.

    Representation one is a Nazi propaganda poster created to gain support from the German population. The poster to some degree, shows us perhaps one of the most effective way the Nazis gained the backing of the German people, however, it is just one method used amongst several which all counted towards the Nazis winning seats and as a result, winning power. The poster is a primary source, and it does behold quite a lot of truth or accuracy because it was created by the Nazi Party as their manifesto so as a result, the poster is subjective and it has to be, because it was supposed to be helping Hitler's party support-and this is found in any party trying to win an election.

    • Word count: 1265
  16. The most important reason why there was little opposition towards the Nazi regime was its use of propaganda. Explain how far you agree with this statement.

    This results in less opposition to the Nazi regime. There were so many ways of enforcing the propaganda - through the radio was one source of propaganda, the Nazis got them installed in cafes and factories, cheap radios were sold and loudspeakers were placed in the streets; there were even spot checks to ensure that people were listen to the radio. Ensuring that Hitler's preaching about Germany was heard by everyone. Children were influenced to join an organisation called the Hitler youth. Here they were encouraged and encouraged to believe that anyone who they heard say anything negative about the way things were being run should have their names mentioned at the Hitler Youth.

    • Word count: 1182
  17. Why did the Nazis set fire to the Reichstag

    It was the clear that the Nazis themselves had set fire to the Reichstag building for a number of reasons. The fire not only provided Hitler a chance to get rid of the communist by blaming the plot on them and had helped to remind the Germans that he is the one who could stamp out the communist threat throughout the country. In order to consolidate his power, Hitler persuaded President Hindenburg to pass an emergency decree, the 'Decree for the protection of people and State' which suspending all articles in constitution which guaranteed personal liberty, freedom of speech, press and assembly.

    • Word count: 1538
  18. Hitler - Totalitarian State

    In 1920 the party changed its name to the 'National Socialist German Workers Party' or 'Nazis' for short. By 1921 the party had over 3500 members. Hitler took over as leader and they had their very first party rally. They even had their own armed squads, known as the stormtroopers or 'S.A' for short. Hitler was determined to overthrow the government, as he did not have any faith in the Weimer Republic. The S.A was mainly made up of former soldiers from WWI. A lot of Germans were angry with the way the war had ended as some soldiers felt that they had not been defeated and the government had surrendered too soon.

    • Word count: 1806
  19. The ideas and main points of Nazism were drawn up by a few Nazi Party members including Adolf Hitler. They created a 25 Point Programme which was adopted by the rest of the Party.

    But because the Weimar Government was so unpopular with the German people and the German economy was at a low, the people began to look for alternative parties to support. In July 1919 Adolf Hitler joined the German Workers Party; he changed the name of the party to the National Socialist German Workers Party and took the role of leader of the party. The Nazi party began to grow and the idea of Nazism grew with it. The ideas and main points of Nazism were drawn up by a few Nazi Party members including Adolf Hitler.

    • Word count: 1518
  20. Nazi policies towards women

    The aim was to increase pure Aryans births. Measures between the years 1933-39 were taken, for example: Financial incentives were offered to women such as marriage loans and birth grants. Propaganda was used to raise the status and self-esteem of women who were encouraged by the government, their husbands and friends to stay in the house all day, living as slaves to their husband and children, cleaning and cooking. And the reverse techniques were in order to encourage childbirth by instigating higher taxes for childless couples, tighter penalties on abortions, restrictions on contraceptive information and measures were introduced for compulsory sterilisation of 'undesirables'.

    • Word count: 1378
  21. Was the Treaty of Versailles Unfair to Germany?

    Germans were now thinking that losing 10 percent was a lot, when before they had had no problem with forcing Russia to lose 35 percent of its land, especially most of its industrial land. The Treaty of Versailles now simply commanded Germany to return Alsace- Lorraine to France, the 35 percent of Russia was partly given back to Russia but was also use to form new countries, Schleswig was given to Denmark, West Prussia, Posen and Upper Silesia were given to Poland2 just to name a few.

    • Word count: 1283
  22. Why did the Nazis treatment of the Jews change from 1939 to 1945? In what ways did the Nazis try to eliminate all Jews in Europe in the years from 1941 onwards?

    The Nazis wanted to hide their war crimes from Britain and the USA so as to keep the massacres of Jews continuing in the East. The Nazis didn't only hide the truth from foreign countries, but also from the German people. Aryans often either had extreme Anti-Semitic views or felt indifferent to the Jews and simply did not care where the Jews were going or what was happening to them. Without the knowing any gory details, it was easy of the average person to just turn away and ignore what was happening.

    • Word count: 1608
  23. The most important reason why there was little opposition in Germany towards the Nazi regimes was its use of Propaganda

    There were two main reasons why the Nazis used posters. The main body of German propaganda consists of material increasing or fuelling the wartime effort. These posters often displayed muscular men at work, as this showed power and strength, depicting confidence. Other posters were used as Anti-Semitic propaganda, increasing the dissimilarity between the German Jews and the other German citizens. There had always been discontentment between German Jews and other Germans however through Hitler increasing the amount of propaganda depicting Jews to be thieving and dirty beasts, he managed to divide them even more.

    • Word count: 1755
  24. Explain the nature and the purposee of the Hitler Youth Movement

    Everything that the 'Hitler Youth' did was done discreetly. Hitler used propaganda to demonstrate that the Aryan race were the best. Because Hitler aimed most of his brainwashing at children they grew up not knowing anything different, they were only learning what the Nazis wanted them to know and anyone who went against there ideas was killed for going against Hitler's wishes for the country. Hitler did not only introduce Nazi Regimes into the Hitler Youth he also introduced his way of thinking into schools.

    • Word count: 1276
  25. Why did the Weimar Republic Fail?

    The Weimar Republic was already in debt and still needed to pay the Treaty of Versailles reparations. Germans were again unemployed, living in poverty and desperate. Adolf Hitler then came up with a solution, blame the Jews for Germany's money problems. The Nazis became popular and at the next election won the most votes making them the German Government. The Treaty of Versailles was signed in June 1919. It was a peace settlement signed after World War One by France, Germany, Britain and America. Most of the terms of the Treaty were to punish Germany for supposedly starting the war.

    • Word count: 1151

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • "By the beginning of 1929, the survival prospects of the Weimar Republic looked good." Discuss the extent to which this statement can be agreed with.

    "In conclusion, it can be seen that while there were some positive economic, political and foreign policy developments from 1924 to 1929, these were merely on the surface and covered innumerable flaws in the Weimar system. The lack of understanding of democracy in German society, the negative perceptions and revisionist ideals leftover from the Versailles Treaty and the structurally induced economic weaknesses were all evident throughout the time period, and would have caused the republic eventual downfall. The great depression of 1931, while it sped up this process, was merely a catalyst."

  • "Economic Factors brought the Nazis to power in Germany" To what extent is this true?

    "Looking at all the conclusive facts and arguments, the conclusion that can be reached is that Hitler came to power due to a combination of many different factors. However, the backbone of Hitler's rise was based on the great economic instability of the time highlighted by the two crisis in 1923 and 1929, which enabled Hitler to exploit the situation. Then Hitlers policies appealed to everyone due to effective propaganda. Secondly, the problems with constitution (article 48) which undermined German democracy and the weakness of the Weimar Republic that was widely hated helped the Nazis. This was because of their lack of suppoert and weak constitution. However in the end it was only political intrigue in the right-wing that brought him into office."

  • Discuss the view that the Versailles treaty created as many problems as it solved.

    "In saying that the treaty of Versailles was a complete failure and created all Europe's post war problems would be a massive overstatement, to say it was merely the best the Nations could do with the given situation and that all the problems which arose were little to do with the treaty would be an understatement. The real answer lies somewhere in between the two. The options of the Nations when creating the treaty were small but in being naive and not thinking forward to what certain clauses of the treaty might bring about they created problems. Yet no one could anticipate the rise of Hitler and the Nazi's in Germany and although the treaty aided them in their rise it was one of many factors that lead to the rise of the Nazi party in post Versailles Germany. In conclusion the treaty created a lot of problems some avoidable, some not, its resources were small yet its dealing with its resources was poor. Yet when the nations wanted such polar opposites for a post war Germany and Europe in general it is expected that some problems could and would arise. Keynes said post the signing of the treaty that "The Treaty by overstepping the limits of the possible, has in practice settled nothing"."

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