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GCSE: Germany 1918-1939
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The rise of Hitlers power was based upon a number of long term problems that Germany had faced after the devastating World War. However I believe that the greatest factor that had lead to these problems was the Treaty of Versailles.
Members of the big three debated the terms of the treaty for 5 months. Clemenceau and Wilson argued to a point where even the treaty was in danger of failing; however Lloyd George issued the Fontainbleau Memorandum, in which he persuaded both Wilson and Clemenceau to accept both the treaty and reparations. The instability of the Treaty was evident before the terms where even negotiated. From a German point of view this showed the instability the treaty had from the very beginning. As Hitler was a soldier who fought on the front lines for Germany in 1918, along with many other Germans he was furious when he heard about Germanys defeat in the war.
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As Van der Lubbe was 'naked from the waist upwards, smeared with dirt and sweating', it would seem as if he did not have any help, as he would not be in such a state if he did have help since other people would be involved. Some parts of Source A do not agree with Van der Lubbe's confession. For example, it says in Source A, 'I read the Communist pamphlets he carried in his trouser pockets.' which is implying an accusation of him being a Communist and that he was in a Communist plot to start the fires.
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For Hilter getting the workers votes was essential and they would be the backbone of the new German empire. These were the people would be needed the war and therefore support the rest of Germany. This meant that in order to gain the votes from this people he need to keep them happy, this would also make they work more efficiently. As well as the strength through the joys scheme, things like propaganda was also used to make the workers seem closer to the Fuher. They also created schemes where workers could save five marks a week in order to save up for a Volkswagen beetle, which was seen as the symbol of new Germany.
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In addition, there was leniency from the judge because that judge, along with many others, had supported Nazi beliefs. Although the Munich Putsch was a failure, it benefitted Hitler in many ways. Hitler used his trials as a chance to give long speeches. His strong oratory skills were an important factor in helping him gain publicity. In his speeches he spoke with passion, using body language and a confident voice. His strong oratory skills strongly supported his ideas. After his trial, instead of being known as the prisoner, Hitler became a well-known right-wing hero.
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Hitler and the Nazis lost no time in putting their new powers to good effect. Storm troopers went looking for their opponents throughout Germany. They broke into homes, seizing Communists and Socialists. Back at the SA, the local prisoners were beaten up and tortured. Some were killed and their bodies hidden in woods. The offices of the Communists and SPD were wrecked, their meetings banned or disrupted. Goebbles used his new powers to ban Communist newspapers and then extended the ban to Socialist ones.
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This relates to how they had the use of collective security to deal with problems, if need be. My point here is that this strengthens my argument above of how Britain and France just didn't want to deal with the conflict. In addition, the League of Nations on the whole is shown as a woman who is not bothered about the conflict. That aside, the fact that the league is represented a woman depicts peace. This is also emphasised through the addition of a dove above her head, which also represents peace.
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also have helped him with the Reichstag fire" and this is dot supported by source B, which states that "The other Defendants, (including the Communists) are in this trial but they were not in the Reichstag". Van der Lubbe could have been covering them up so that he was the only one put in trial. When Hitler and Goering arrived, they started to blame Communists for the fire, whereas in source B Van der Lubbe says that he acted alone without the help of other defendants (Communists).
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Unfortunately for some on November 9th 1918 Kaiser Wilhelm II was forced to abdicate and fled to Holland. Following the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm there was a new democratically elected leader of Germany. Fredrich Elbert the new leader was the leader of the social democrats. His meant that all new systems were put in place. The Weimer constitution aimed to set up the most democratic system in the world. They soon let all Germans over the age of twenty vote. A system of proportional representation was put in place meaning that if a party gained twenty percent of a vote the gained twenty percent of the seats in parliament.
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In this desperate situation they were prepared to vote for an extremist party if they promised to sort things out, which they did; also, people like someone whom they already know and recognise. With all this acquired knowledge, Hitler had an advantage over his opponents and knew that he had to appear strong and seize power legally. Through this he gained sufficient popularity and ended up being Chancellor. Question Two Both long and short-term causes contributed to Hitler's rise to power.
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Either way, this ambiguity makes the source not useful. From my analysis, I conclude that historians would find Source A more useful because it was written after the Nazis ceased control of Germany and it was written by a journalist who would have been at the event. It might have been written by someone working for the Nazis but many people had lost support for the Nazi Party because they had seen how terrible it was. Source B was written by the Nazis, which immediately makes it unreliable.
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If he seemed too innocent, then the judges won't believe him. Source B was a quote from van der Lubbe's trial in 1933. Van der Lubbe was probably tortured to say what the Nazis wanted, which was admit that van der Lubbe and his communist friends started the fire. This shows that both sources are suited to what the audience wants to hear. Source A was to be suited to the judges at the Nuremberg Trials of 1945-47 and Source B was to fulfill what the Nazis wanted to hear. Therefore, both sources are inaccurate and they are not what they seem to be.
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at the time as an official document, making it a primary source, compared to an overheard document which was documented 16 years after the event had happened giving historians a reason to believe that some evidence could have been forgotten or misheard. What impression of Kristallnacht does source C give? B) Source C is an account written by David Buffman who was the American Consul in Leipzig, he wrote at the time from what he had seen himself and the interviews he had carried out.
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An additional cause of the failure of the Schlieffen plan was the Battle of the Marne. The Germans were extremely close to reaching Paris that they could even see the Eiffel tower. Then a change in plan by Moltke and the German generals was a certain fatal mistake. The army was meant to surround Paris from the west but instead the army went east of Paris towards the Marne. This was a decisive moment in the Schlieffen plan because it gave the French time to save themselves.
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Starting a social revolution involves creating a new way of life for the people. Hitler's plans for world domination began in his book "Mein Kamp". It was in this that he expressed his plans to alter the German Youth. They were to be completely converted into Volksgenossen- Aryan children. Young Germans were to be brought up as good National Socialists and become loyal followers of Hitler. "In our eyes the German Youth of the future must be slim and Slender, swift as the greyhound, tough as leather and hard as Krupp steel." A. Hitler From the moment Hitler became the leader of the Nazi Party he realised the importance of educating, hence controlling, young Germans according to Nazi ideals.
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This admission firmly reinforces Diels views on the incident, confirming that Van Der Lubbe actually did act alone. Unusually, a contradiction in Diels accounts disagrees with the statement made by Van Der Lubbe. Although he previously stated that Van Der Lubbe 'had acted alone', Diels later states that 'several details suggested that Communists who had helped him start these other fires might also have helped him with the Reichstag fire'. This is an immediate contrast with Source B, which suggests that Van Der Lubbe acted entirely unaccompanied. The latter source does definitely not support the former, and in fact both sources are almost the direct opposite of each other; one claims that Van Der Lubbe acted alone, the other claims that he acted as part of a Communist plot.
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The Jews were also ordered to pay a fine of one billion marks for the damage to German owned Buildings. Further discrimination of the Jews was to follow on the fifteenth of November 1938 Jewish children were only allowed to attend Jewish schools and then in December the remaining Jewish businesses wre taken by the Nazis. On 12 March1939 the first mass arrests of Jews took place. Almost 30'000 Jewish boys and men were arrested and taken to concentration camps.
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What was it like to live in Nazi Germany? How did life change for young people in Nazi Germany? Although Adolf Hitler was a very confident man
They learnt how traumatic the 1920's were and how badly the Weimar government had dealt with the problems. In biology pupils were taught how they were superior in intelligence and strength over other races or 'sub human' Jews or Slavs of Eastern Europe. In Geography they would learn about how harsh the Treaty of Versailles was to Germany and in Physics and Chemistry young people learnt how to make weapons and explosives. Even in maths the Nazis managed to portray their resentment of the Jews. Below is a maths problem given to the pupils to work out: 'A bomber aircraft on take off carries twelve dozen bombs, each weighing ten kilos.
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Unit 1 Play: The Resistible rise of Arturo Ui -Plot Prologue: Plot: The Announcer appears in front of the curtain, which has hung on it various notices
We discover that many men have declared bankruptcy. Arturo Ui is revealed to be waiting in the lobby. He wishes to offer his services and try to help the Cauliflower trust and prevent them from succumbing to bankruptcy. Untrusting of Ui, they decline his offer, and suggest that they take out a city loan. The loan could be allocated to building docks, for the cheap import of vegetables. This would keep the trust in business. Several members of the Trust express doubt that Dogsborough, the boss of the Waterfront, will support this. They claim that now the market is bad, Dogsborough won't take a chance on their "fishy" proposition because "Morals go overboard in times of crisis."
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Why Did Kristallnacht Take Place? (a) A historian studying Kristallnacht would probably find both sources useful, though in different ways
Therefore the only question is the reliability of Hesse's original account. Hesse worked for the Nazis, and therefore could have been present when this meeting happened, making it a primary source. It was written after the war, so he would have been uncensored and without repercussions, as he didn't have to be scared of being sent to a concentration camp. Although Hesse could have been distancing himself from the Nazis, by showing Hitler and the Nazis in a very bad light.
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How significant was Nazi Propaganda in maintaining Hitler in power in the years 1933-39? The appointment of Adolf Hitler as chancellor of Germany in 1933 should
Following the Nazi 'seizure of power' in 1933, Joseph Goebbels, the head of the newly formed Ministry of Propaganda, stressed how important it was to centrally control propaganda. He said It is not enough for people to be more or less reconciled to our regime, to be persuaded to adopt a neutral attitude toward us; rather we want to work on people until they have capitulated to us, until they grasp ideologically that what is happening in Germany today not only must be accepted but also can be accepted.
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GCSE History Coursework: Reichstag Fire 1) How far is the account in Source A supported by Source B? In Source A, Rudolf Diels claims at the start of the second paragraph that
Both of the points it could be making, however, are supported by Source A, but both cannot be true. This makes me question the reliability of Source A. Either way, statements in Source A support Source B, but both sources are quite unreliable as neither gives a definite answer, so they cannot support each other to great length. 2) How far can you trust Source A? Source A was written by Rudolf Diels, the Head of the Prussian Political Police, at the time of the Reichstag fire.
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Nazi anti-Semitic propaganda against "Non-Aryans" openly attacked anyone who had Jewish parents or grandparents. In the summer of 1935, anti-Jewish propaganda appeared in Nazi-German shops and restaurants. Hatred for the Jews was spread by a wide use of media: the weekly newspaper 'Der Strurmer' and some films depicted Jewish people as unclean and dishonest. Even cartoons in childrens' books showed signs of anti-Semitism by portraying the 'typical Jewish features' of having dark hair and big noses. This racial hatred Jews was spread amongst neighbours, schools and colleagues. Jewish children were bullied and humiliated in class, and Jews were often attacked on the streets; they were increasingly isolated from the rest of German society.
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* March 17, 1920 Kapp Putsch ends. * March 31, 1920 Adolf Hitler mustered out of the military. * April 3, 1920 21 different Freikorps units, under the command of General Baron Oskar von Watter, annihilate the Ruhr Communist uprising in five days; thousands killed. * April 1920 Government stops paying Freikorps units. 1921 * March 21, 1921 Plebiscite in Upper Silesia. They vote to remain part of Germany. * March, 1921 Allied Plebiscite Commission rejects vote, draws boundary anyway; takes section of mines, mills and furnaces and 350,000 Germans and puts them under Polish rule. * April 27, 1921 Allied Reparations Committee levels 33 billion war reparations debt onto Germany; commands the handing over of 26% of all exports for 42 years and puts the Germans immediately into 12 billion in arrears.
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Sixty per cent of new university graduates could not get a job. Farmers slipped further into debt. For factory workers, 40% of all factory workers were unemployed by 1932, also the government cut unemployment benefit to save money, so for the unemployed this was a time of extreme poverty. These problems helped the Nazis because they could promise strong leadership and employment. People that appealed to the Nazis was working class who were facing unemployment, which the Nazis promised jobs, food and so forth, also there was the middle class who were frightened of communists and of big business men's wealth.
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They took over a beer hall and said they were forming a new government, from where a revolution would sweep the rest of Germany. Hitler had the backing of General Ludendorf and other Nationalists hostile to the current government. The next morning Hitler Ludendorf and about 2000 supporters set out for the public offices in the centre of Munich. They were confronted by a large force of armed Police who opened fire. The Nazi supporters fled. Hitler suffered a dislocated shoulder was arrested and was sent to prison.
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