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GCSE: Germany 1918-1939

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 11
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  1. Rise of the Nazis - analysis of sources.

    This is further reinforced by the fact that the words translated in Source A actually mean German Liberation, which is right under the eagle trying to reach to the sun. The word liberation is linked to freedom and breaking free of chains, which is linked to Hitler’s idea of ignoring the Treaty of Versailles and being able to make Germany great again, like how it was before the woeful defeat in WW1. Additionally, during 1909, Bernhard von Bülow gave a famous speech were he spoke about Germany’s rightful place in the sun, and many German citizens loved that speech so

    • Word count: 2297
  2. Describe Opposition to the Nazis

    Films such as ?I accuse? were made and shown to everyone to make the German people familiar with Nazi ideas such as killings of handicapped people to support the rest of the country. This indoctrination helped the Nazi?s win the support of the German people. 1. Explain why some Germans opposed Nazi rule? [7 marks] German Christians opposed Nazi rule because they believed Christianity could not accept such racist views. People such as Paul Schneider preached the words of God and spread anti-Nazi messages, Schneider was sent to a concentration camp but secretly sent messages tot the Church warning them no to compromise with the Nazi?s because he believed they were not to be trusted.

    • Word count: 690
  3. Factors in Hitler's consolidation of power

    Explain why the Reichstag Fire was important to Hitler? [7 marks] The Reichstag fire was important to Hitler because it enabled him to get rid of the communist opposition party. The fire happened in 1934 and a Dutch communist (Van der Lubbe) was found nearby after the fire, as the people were scared and hoping nothing like this would happen again it was easy for Hitler to convince President Hindenburg to pass the emergency decree which frightened many communists because it meant their houses could be searched and they could be arrested at any time and Van der Lubbe was arrested.

    • Word count: 666
  4. Was the improvement in party finances the most important change that took place within the Nazi party in the years 1924-1929? (16 marks)

    They shared a hatred of communism and hoped Hitler would limit the power of trade unions. The Nazi?s received donations from giants of German industry, such as Thyssen, Krupp, and Bosch. This extra income helped Hitler expand the SA and they had 400,000 members by 1930. Altogether, the party finances played a huge part in the change within the Nazi Party in the years 1924-1929. On the other hand, propaganda was another important change.

    • Word count: 325
  5. Explain how the Nazis dealt with the Church in Germany (8 marks)

    This led Hitler to turn the full force of the police state against Christians. One-third of Germany?s Christians were Catholic. This caused more problems because Catholics owed their first allegiance to the Pope rather than Hitler. In addition, they had their own schools which taught different values from the Nazi state schools. At first, Hitler tried to reach an agreement with the Catholic Church, and in July 1933 he reached a concordat with the Pope. Hitler agreed to confirm the freedom of worship for Catholics and not to interfere with Catholic schools in Germany; and the Roman Catholic Church agreed that its Priests would not interfere in politics, and that it would instruct German bishops to swear loyalty to the National Socialist regime.

    • Word count: 484
  6. The Weimar Republic faced many crises in 1923 for a variety of reasons

    Some crises were to do with money, and some crises were due to the instability of the Weimar Republic. Because the Treaty of Versailles asked for £6600 million in reparations, the government soon was very short on money, especially with the money from industry being highly limited due to the passive resistance in the Ruhr, as well as having to pay the government workers. The government then printed more money, which they didn't have. This led to the value of money nosediving, so much so, that a cup of coffee could go work from 5000 marks in price to 8000 marks in the space of 15 minutes.

    • Word count: 731
  7. Nazi Germany Revision 1918-45

    Failed when socialist groups (e.g. trade unions) organized a general strike against the putsch. Again, the government was shown to be weak. Assassination of Walter Rathenau (Foreign Minister), 1922. * French occupation of the Ruhr and its effects, 1923. Why did the Germans fall behind with reparations payments? Non-payment in 1922. French and Belgian troops entered Ruhr, Jan 1923. Seizure of goods by France to pay for reparations. German response of ?passive resistance?. French occupation and policing of Ruhr. Violent clashes between French troops and German workers ? some killed on both sides. Government organized printing a money to pay the workers.

    • Word count: 5521
  8. Was preparing for war the main reasons for Hitlers economic policies?

    Hitler than set up the DAF, which had a key role to ensure the workers served the best interest of the Nazi regime. The DAF also controlled the power of the employer. Even through the workers lost their rights to act collectively against their employers, but DAF established the minimum working standards should be, which prevented strikes to be happening. This links to the Nazis policy toward unemployment. Similarly to Nazi policy to towards workers Hitler set up another programme to tackle the issue of unemployment because majority of unemployed people were communist supporters.

    • Word count: 594
  9. Why was the Weimar Government unpopular?

    politicians who signed the Treaty of Versailles, whom they referred to as the ?November criminals? This links to what happened as a result of Germany?s inability to pay these reparations, which was the occupation of the Ruhr, and the Weimar Government was unpopular because of how they responded to this issue.

    • Word count: 451
  10. Why did Germany experience a period of recovery in the years 1923-29

    Stresemann fixed this issue by scrapping the worthless Reichsmark and introducing the Rentenmark. This links to another way in Stresemann fixed the German economy, and this is through the introduction of the Dawes Plan and the Young Plan?, through a series of negotiations with the major banks of the USA, as the source states ?The Dawes Plan of 1924 and US Loans encouraged economic recovery.

    • Word count: 472
  11. How did the position of the Jews in Nazi Germany change in the years 1933-45?

    This anti-semitic feeling is seen in the way that the ?SA organised a boycott of Jewish shops?, and that ?local councils had banned Jews from public places?, showing how anti-semitic feeling starting to become political. This links to how anti-semitism became even more political and structured, on a national scale, through the founding of the Nuremberg laws, as the source states ?Jews were denied citizenship through the Nuremberg laws?.

    • Word count: 408
  12. Did all Germans benefit under Nazi rule?

    The Strength through Joy resulted in many to benefit from the Nazi?s as it removed many social barriers between the high and low classes and also meant the working class could afford high priced expenses which they could not afford before. Some historians also believe that all Germans benefited under the Nazi rule as Hitler increased employment. One way he increased employment is through the construction of the 70000 km autobahn, hospitals and many more buildings which created work for 80,000 men.

    • Word count: 649
  13. Explain the changes involved in creating the Nazi Police State

    The SS was originally created as a private bodyguard for Hitler and other important or influential Nazi leaders. It however did not stay this way and the SS grew from 500 men to 50,000 strict Aryans. Physical standards were very strict. They replaced the SA?s brown uniforms with black ones, to distinguish themselves as a separate organisation. They became the main means of terrorising the German population into obedience. They were fiercely loyal to Hitler, and swore oaths that gave Hitler ultimate control. They remained loyal to the Nazi Party, and played a large role in getting rid of Rohm, leader of the SA.

    • Word count: 762
  14. Explain why hyperinflation occurred in Germany in 1923

    In addition, another condition of the Treaty of Versailles was that 12% of Germany?s land was given over to the victors. A large proportion of this land was industrial, one of the main areas being the Saar Coalfields; which caused Germany a great loss in areas naturally rich in raw materials, generating a huge loss in income. As well as the reduction in terms of industry, the confiscation of territory caused a massive reduction in the earning population. This not only meant less workers but also less tax payers; and while the obvious solution would have been to raise taxes to make up for the shortfall in income, the government decided to print additional money instead.

    • Word count: 644
  15. Describe the effect of hyperinflation

    Even for those few people whose salary kept pace with inflation, it was hard to buy the goods. They needed so much money to buy what they needed that they would physically struggle to transport the money to the shop. In some cases of hyperinflation, people had to transport money in wheelbarrows because they needed so many notes for even small items. An example of this was in Germany 1923, where a single loaf of bread eventually cost 200 billion marks. Another result of prices rising all the time was that workers had to get paid twice a day to rush out and buy their goods before prices rose even more.

    • Word count: 632

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • "By the beginning of 1929, the survival prospects of the Weimar Republic looked good." Discuss the extent to which this statement can be agreed with.

    "In conclusion, it can be seen that while there were some positive economic, political and foreign policy developments from 1924 to 1929, these were merely on the surface and covered innumerable flaws in the Weimar system. The lack of understanding of democracy in German society, the negative perceptions and revisionist ideals leftover from the Versailles Treaty and the structurally induced economic weaknesses were all evident throughout the time period, and would have caused the republic eventual downfall. The great depression of 1931, while it sped up this process, was merely a catalyst."

  • "Economic Factors brought the Nazis to power in Germany" To what extent is this true?

    "Looking at all the conclusive facts and arguments, the conclusion that can be reached is that Hitler came to power due to a combination of many different factors. However, the backbone of Hitler's rise was based on the great economic instability of the time highlighted by the two crisis in 1923 and 1929, which enabled Hitler to exploit the situation. Then Hitlers policies appealed to everyone due to effective propaganda. Secondly, the problems with constitution (article 48) which undermined German democracy and the weakness of the Weimar Republic that was widely hated helped the Nazis. This was because of their lack of suppoert and weak constitution. However in the end it was only political intrigue in the right-wing that brought him into office."

  • Discuss the view that the Versailles treaty created as many problems as it solved.

    "In saying that the treaty of Versailles was a complete failure and created all Europe's post war problems would be a massive overstatement, to say it was merely the best the Nations could do with the given situation and that all the problems which arose were little to do with the treaty would be an understatement. The real answer lies somewhere in between the two. The options of the Nations when creating the treaty were small but in being naive and not thinking forward to what certain clauses of the treaty might bring about they created problems. Yet no one could anticipate the rise of Hitler and the Nazi's in Germany and although the treaty aided them in their rise it was one of many factors that lead to the rise of the Nazi party in post Versailles Germany. In conclusion the treaty created a lot of problems some avoidable, some not, its resources were small yet its dealing with its resources was poor. Yet when the nations wanted such polar opposites for a post war Germany and Europe in general it is expected that some problems could and would arise. Keynes said post the signing of the treaty that "The Treaty by overstepping the limits of the possible, has in practice settled nothing"."

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