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GCSE: Germany 1918-1939

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  1. Hitler and the Nazis - how the Nazis gained power and how they used it.

    Hitler and the Nazis lost no time in putting their new powers to good effect. Storm troopers went looking for their opponents throughout Germany. They broke into homes, seizing Communists and Socialists. Back at the SA, the local prisoners were beaten up and tortured. Some were killed and their bodies hidden in woods. The offices of the Communists and SPD were wrecked, their meetings banned or disrupted. Goebbles used his new powers to ban Communist newspapers and then extended the ban to Socialist ones.

    • Word count: 3007
  2. Explain the nature and purpose of the Enabling Act

    The new Reichstag met in March 23, 1933, to vote on the passing of the Enabling Act. In this session, all of the Communists and many Socialists were missing because they had been arrested by the Nazis. When the vote was taken, 441 deputies voted in favour of the Act and only the Social Democrats voted against it.

    • Word count: 466
  3. How did Hitler become leader of the Nazi party? Who were his henchmen?

    When he returned to Munich after the war he was employed by the army to spy on extremist political parties. One of the parties he spied on was called the German workers party. While attending one of their meetings, Hitler found that he agreed with many of their policies, one of which was anti-Semitism. In 1921, Hitler organized his own private army called the Sturm-Abteilung or the SA. The SA mainly consisted of young men.

    • Word count: 462
  4. Hitler - Women and Youth

    The "Law for the Encouragement of Marriage" was passed in June 1933. This gave all newly married couples a loan of 100 marks. For every child born, the family could keep 25% of the loan. This marriage loan system worked, and the number of marriages rose from 0.5 million in 1932, to 0.75 million in 1934. It did not, however, result in more babies, with most couples continuing to have two. The Government also introduced family allowances. Another way of encouragement was awarding medals to the most fertile mothers each year, with 5 earning a bronze, 6 or 7 earning a silver, and 8 or more earning a gold.

    • Word count: 651
  5. Explain the significance of the 1938 Kristallnacht in the development of Nazi policies towards the Jews

    Unfortunately for him he was at remembrance dinner for those who gave their lives in the Munich Putsch. He was so outraged that he stormed off, before he'd given his annual speech but not after giving a few words privately to his second-in-command at the dinner, Goebbels. Goebbels then took the speech and went on to be racist, Anti-Semitic and making it clear that at least he felt that the Nazi's should avenge the German official's death. Plans were immediately set in place for what would be Kristallnacht or 'Night of Broken Glass'.

    • Word count: 471
  6. Difficulties of Establishing Stability In The Wiemar Government

    According to the Source, the German people felt humiliated because of the treaty of Versailles. Most Germans blamed the singing of the treaty on the new Weimar government. The Treaty of Versailles restricted all German industry to 10%, which meant lots of people lost their jobs, they blamed it on the signing of the treaty, and of course were not happy to comply with this, it caused havoc when trying to re-stabilise the Weimar government. The army was dramatically reduced, and it was non conscription.

    • Word count: 883
  7. The most important reason why there was little opposition in Germany towards the Nazi regimes was its use of Propaganda

    There were two main reasons why the Nazis used posters. The main body of German propaganda consists of material increasing or fuelling the wartime effort. These posters often displayed muscular men at work, as this showed power and strength, depicting confidence. Other posters were used as Anti-Semitic propaganda, increasing the dissimilarity between the German Jews and the other German citizens. There had always been discontentment between German Jews and other Germans however through Hitler increasing the amount of propaganda depicting Jews to be thieving and dirty beasts, he managed to divide them even more.

    • Word count: 1755
  8. Explain the nature and the purposee of the Hitler Youth Movement

    Everything that the 'Hitler Youth' did was done discreetly. Hitler used propaganda to demonstrate that the Aryan race were the best. Because Hitler aimed most of his brainwashing at children they grew up not knowing anything different, they were only learning what the Nazis wanted them to know and anyone who went against there ideas was killed for going against Hitler's wishes for the country. Hitler did not only introduce Nazi Regimes into the Hitler Youth he also introduced his way of thinking into schools.

    • Word count: 1276
  9. How Did Hitler Gain Power in 1933?

    Then in 1933 Hitler was asked to be the Chancellor but to have Von Papen as his vice chancellor. Hitler accepted his terms. Though later on in the year Hitler called for another election. He got a staggering 44% of the vote, with the Nationalist party he had more votes to outvote the other parties. Though when Hindenburg died in 1934 Hitler decided now was the time to become a right wing country again and declared himself as President as well as chancellor.

    • Word count: 646
  10. Why did the status and position of the Jews in Germany worsen in the years 1933 to 1945?

    On the 7th of the same month came the Professional Civil Service Act, which banned Jews from Government jobs. Also at the same time the first concentration camps were set up at Dachau and Oranienburg. In September of 1933 Jews were banned from all cultural activities. As you can see in the first year alone their were dramatic changes for Jews in Germany. In May 21st 1935 Jews were forbidden to join the German army under the Defence Law. Jews had served in the army for a long time and they fought as Germans in World War One.

    • Word count: 997
  11. Why did the Weimar Republic Fail?

    The Weimar Republic was already in debt and still needed to pay the Treaty of Versailles reparations. Germans were again unemployed, living in poverty and desperate. Adolf Hitler then came up with a solution, blame the Jews for Germany's money problems. The Nazis became popular and at the next election won the most votes making them the German Government. The Treaty of Versailles was signed in June 1919. It was a peace settlement signed after World War One by France, Germany, Britain and America. Most of the terms of the Treaty were to punish Germany for supposedly starting the war.

    • Word count: 1151
  12. How and Why did the First World War start?

    He encouraged the Grand Admiral Tirpitz to build ships that could compete with the Dreadnought. Soon, Britain and Germany were having an Arms Race. This made a huge shift of power, many countries were scared of Germany and set about making national defences whilst other joined alliances. At this point, there was a great deal of friction in Europe. So, Wilhelm's jealousy and ambitious nature contributed to his country's increased military power at that time. By 1914, many countries felt more important than each other and to show they were powerful they felt a need for colonies to build up an empire.

    • Word count: 983
  13. Weimar Republic

    When the Treaty of Versailles was established and signed, it created enormous problems for Germany; Germany was in chaos. Germany agreed to it and signed it to help Germany become better, stronger and more successful; but it ended up doing the exact opposite. Another problem began at late 1922 when Germany could not pay back reperations to France. Then in early 1923 France invaded the Ruhr which was in a border between France and Germany. They took all goods from Germany and also killed many German soldiers leaving many Germans devastated. The Weimar Government tried to introduce Democracy into Germany.

    • Word count: 1816
  14. How far did the American economy boom in the 1920s?

    Women's clothing was massed produced; clothing sales went up 427 percent. As well as all these things could be delivered better and quicker thanks to new transport and roads. Also mail order companies grew, one of the most famous was sear roebuck and co Chicago, and one third of Americans brought from this company and sales were worth 347 million dollars. One of the biggest buyer in the 1930 was the washing machine, 24% of Americans had washing machines in there houses, wear as 8% had them in 1920. A different example of the boom was transport.

    • Word count: 782
  15. Hitler's Influence Over Youth

    Hitler influenced the youth of Germany through youth organisation like the Hitler Youth and The League of German Maidens. Hitler Youth was for boys, here they took part in many physical activites, they marched and at on older age they engaged in military training activities. This made boys into soldiers as they became strong and disciplined. The League of German Maidens was for girls, they also engaged ion some physical activity, but they mostly learnt how to cook and about being a mother and wife.

    • Word count: 488
  16. Sources A and B. Which of these two sources would an historian studying Kristallnacht find the more useful ?Fritz Hesse a journalist who worked for the Nazi Party wrote source A.

    Hesse wrote his account in 1954, which makes it hindsight. Moreover, this may have affected Hesse's account in two ways. Firstly, due to the fact that it was written sixteen years after the events, his views of the event may have changed which would subsequently lead him to invent his own perceptions. Also, a significant point to make in regard to what the historian has done is that it is a summary of Hesse's account, and some important information may have been excluded for the source, or details may have been lost or altered.

    • Word count: 700
  17. Kristallnacht. Source C is an account by David Buffman, from the American Consul in Leipzig.

    He recalls that Nazi press described Kristallnacht as 'a spontaneous wave of anger', thought contradicting himself by saying 'the local crowds were obviously horrified by the Nazi's acts', inferring that it was a not a spontaneous attack on Jewish people. Furthermore, Buffman describes the claims that Nazi press made with regards to the origin of the shattering of shop windows as 'a spontaneous wave of anger, as a result of the cowardly Jewish murder of Von Roth in Paris'.

    • Word count: 528
  18. Was german foreign policy responsible for the outbreak of wwII?

    In 1936 Hitler sent German then sent troops into the Rhineland, this boosted his popularity with the German public and generals. It also allowed Hitler to share a border with France ,Belgium and the Netherlands which he would later invade. In 1936 a civil war broke out in Spain between Communists and Hitler took this opportunity to fight against communism, try out his new armed forces and refine his tactics for the future. In 1938 a plebiscite was called to see if Austria wanted to unite with Germany. Hitler wanted a "trouble free" plebiscite and sent Nazi troops into Austria.

    • Word count: 1200
  19. Do the problems of 1919-1924 suggest that the Weimar Republic was doomed from the start?

    As the fragile German government failed to pay in 1922, soldiers from France and Belgium invaded the Ruhr area and took what they believed was owed to them. The result was disastrous to Germany as the Ruhr was the most economically important area of Germany. Because it had no goods to trade, the government simply printed more money. With so much money in circulation, prices and wages rocketed and the currency devalued and resulted in hyperinflation. The middle class suffered badly and many such families found that their savings in the bank that may have bought them a house in 1921 would not buy them a loaf of bread in 2023.

    • Word count: 1088
  20. Was the failure of the Schlieffen plan the main reason for Germanys failure of the First World War?

    They failed at invading Paris and were held up by the battle of the Marne. The main hope that Germany had of winning a war on two fronts lay with the Schlieffen plan. This would have allowed Germany to focus all her forces to the east. This was not the case and by November 1914 Germany was confronted with a two front war which it was not prepared for militarily or economically. This is an important cause for the failure of WWI as this created a two war front that Germany was not prepared for.

    • Word count: 1200
  21. Describe How Jews Were Discriminated Against in Germany from 1933 to 1939

    Then in September of 1933 another law restricting jewish employment was passed the Entailed Farm Law banned all Jews from owning farms. 1934 was a fairly untroubled year for jews with no major laws or attacks on them, except for the SD's proposal to emigrate the Jews. But in 1935 unofficial jewish attacks commenced again and Hitler announced the Nuremberg Laws which included "The Law for the protection of German blood and German honour" which forbade mixed marriages and sex between aryans and jews, "The Reich Citizenship Law" which deprived jews of German citizenship and "The law for the protection

    • Word count: 709
  22. In what ways did the Nazis attempt to eliminate Jews in Europe from 1941 onward?

    There were four groups of Einsatzgruppen and they were A, B, C and D. They were all posted in different areas behind the Eastern Front group A being the most feared. The Einsatzgruppen would transport all the Jews they came across to deserted places, and make them dig mass graves and undress. They would then line them all up and shoot a bullet through their back. They did it this way to save the Einsatzgruppen trauma. Previous to this murder was not used, however it was not passive.

    • Word count: 941
  23. Why did the Nazis treatment of the Jews change from 1939-45?

    The smallest ghetto housed approximately 3,000 people. Warsaw, the largest ghetto, held 400,000 people. Walls were built around the Warsaw ghetto to separate the ghetto district from the rest of the city, and the only way in and out was by a guarded bridge if anyone attempted to cross it execution would be enforced immediately. Typhus was one of the main killers in the ghettos as the living conditions were so poor. Bodies of the dead were piled up in the gutters and on the streets waiting to be removed to mass graves.

    • Word count: 965
  24. How did hitler consolidate power

    In March 1933, Hitler called for another election, trying to get an overall Nazi majority in the Reichstag. Hitler was using the same strategy as in the past elections; speeches, rallies, processions, and street fighting. Except now he had the resources of state media and control of the streets. Success was in the balance. On February 27th 1933 the Reichstag building burnt down. Hitler put the blame on the Communists and said the fire was the start of a communist uprising. Hitler insisted special emergency powers to deal with the situation and President Hindenburg gave them to him.

    • Word count: 604

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