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GCSE: International relations 1900-1939
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Were the peace treaties of 1919 - 1923 fair? Argument agreeing with the fairness of the Treaties of 1919 - 1923: I think that the peace treaties of 1919 - 1923 were fair. The Treaty of Versailles made Germany pay for the terrible damage it had caused. France had suffered devastating losses due to Germany's actions in World War I - millions of pounds worth of damage had been caused, much of France was in ruins. Millions of innocent French and British young men lost their lives in World War I, understandably France wanted to weaken Germany and stop it from ever being powerful and in a position to hurt and damage France again.
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This was an assassination but who was the one to blame? Some historians believe that it was due to poor security. Others say that it was a planned plot by well-trained assassins. In this essay I will analyse all of the sources related to the topic and state, what key factor was their to blame for the assassination of Franz Ferdinand. First of all Source A gives a detailed account on what happened moments before and after the assassination, which also agrees with three of the four potential blames.
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and a latent desire for revenge, which was eventually fulfilled by Hitler when he invaded France in 1940, escalating World War II by opening a Western Front. The significance of economics in contributing towards World War II only increased in the 1930s, as the Great Depression caused huge unemployment and economic decline in Germany. The significance of this was that Hitler used these problems as an excuse to rearm Germany and reintroduce conscription into the army on the pretext that it would boost German manufacturing and solve unemployment, but in fact he was preparing Germany for war.
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France was in a treaty with Russia and therefore against Austria-Hungary and Germany. Britain entered the war as an ally with France and to protect Belgium. Britain's entrance gained the resources of all of the British colonies and territories as well. Many other countries eventually entered during the war because of threats. However, the above is the direct chain of events that caused World War 1. Almost the entire chain reaction shares the common feeling that triggered war. This feeling is suspicion and tension. That is what ultimately caused World War 1 to break out was the fact that tension and suspicion has been around for a while, imperialism, nationalism, militarism and the alliance system.
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Later, Hitler used the publicly bitter memories of the Treaty of Versailles to gain public support. Another factor in causing World War II was the Wall Street Crash of 1929 resulting in a worldwide economic depression. Not only did these cause countries such as Britain and France to take a less active foreign policy, but also it destroyed the newly found prosperity in Germany ('Golden Age'/'Roaring 20's') and left many people unemployed. The USA demanded their loans to Germany to be repaid which meant that the prosperity of the 1920s (which was mainly based on the borrowed money from the USA)
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OFFENSIVE ATTACKS ON WF FAIL AGAIN. 1918 MARCH german forces attack entente. Entente faces crucial situation but French commander Foch pushes G troops back to Marne by 30 May. JULY- Entente counter attck oushes G back to Marne. 8th AUG- "Black day of the German army." Brit attack. Ludendorff wants to resign. 4th Oct G and Austrian Gov ask armistice from Wilson based n 14 POINTS. G FAIL TO ACHIEVE WAR AIMS. Eastern Front - Central Power Weak point strategy. 1914- AUG- Russian's sudden unexpected invasion of eastern Prussia. General Hindenburg moves against Russ and crushes them at Masurian Lakes.
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Why did the first world war break out in 1914? I will be discussing the six main causes: The alliance system, imperial rivalry, arms race and naval race, the Moroccan crisis, Balkan troubles, and the assassination in Sarajevo.
This tiny event, of course, did happen, and the Alliance system pulled the whole of Europe into the fighting. Without the Alliance system, I think war was less likely to happen, but even if it did, it could be resolved quicker, as there would only be two countries fighting instead of six or more. In my view, the second most important cause was the assassination of Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo. I believe that this was important, as it was the small incident that set everything off. Franz Ferdinand was the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, so when the Serbian assassinator Gavrilo Pricip murdered him, it was the excuse that Austria-Hungary needed to declare war on Serbia, and wipe the annoying little country off the map.
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For all we know, stamping out Hitler's actions then could have led to his dreams being crushed and therefore no war. However, because of blatant self-interest by France and Britain, Hitler was allowed to remilitarise the Rhineland without any opposition. The British government justified this by arguing that the Rhineland was Germany's "back garden", but in reality, the remilitarisation of the Rhineland led to a domino effect and chain reaction for the rest of Hitler's aggressive actions. Furthermore, it can be argued that it was appeasement that allowed Germany to grow too strong.
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Trench warfare. Trench warfare was created to help hold your position and fend of the attacking soldiers. The idea has been used before in other wars but it was put in to a larger use during WWI.
The Opening Clash was really the first battle to the war that took place in september. "The first days of September were dark, desperate hours for the Allied armies fighting in France...The Battle of the Marne (September 6-10) stopped the Germans in their tracks and forced them to pull back...the Allied armies were too weak and tired to chase the Germans as they withdrew from the battle of Marne. This gave them time to dig... By December 1914, trench warfare--the horrible deadlock that characterized the First World War--had arrived."(Bosco, Peter I)
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By then, Japan had been in complete control of Manchuria for nearly a year, and had renamed it Manchukuo. The report did not recommend either economic or military sanctions. The League accepted the report, agreeing that Japanese claims were valid, but that Japan was wrong to have used force and should, therefore, withdraw its troops. Japan then simply left the League in February 1933. Mussolini was so encouraged by the lack of effective League action during the Manchurian Crisis that, from 1932, he began detailed planning for the conquest of Abyssinia. In October 1935, Italy invaded Abyssinia. The League, now supported by Britain and France, began to take a tougher line.
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I will now go on to explain in great detail how the Schlieffen Plan changed in contrast to how it was supposed to work. Germany expected that after Belgium had been invaded, they could go on through northern France. Germany thought they would go unopposed by Britain, but Britain had signed the treaty of London 91859) which stated that Britain would support Belgium if they were attacked. Schlieffen's other reasons for invading France from the north was that is where the industry was (raw materials and resources)
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The following were equally important reasons why the stalemate on the western front was broken: The tank, American Entry, naval blockade and March offensive.
The tanks as first introduced in the Battle of the Somme 1916, were its main goal was to break through the enemies barbed wire, clear the trenches with machine guns and destroy their machine gun posts. The tanks had very little success in completing its main purpose. Instead I believe it did a better job in intimidating the opponent. If anything the tank didn't help in breaking the stalemate but instead contributed on the stalemate of the western front. Lloyd George had praised the Tank after it was created and labeled it "A war winning machine".
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mutinied * The Generals then tolled Keiser that he no longer controlled his armed forces * 8th August 1918 * General Groener - Kaiser's Staff HQ 1918 o "Today oaths of loyalty have no substance" o The Kaiser was stunned * "Betrayal, utter betrayal!" * Flees to Holland o In his place there is a power vacuum * Reichstag - the German parliament was put back into control * Rather than the King and the Army o The socialist party was the largest * Their leader was Friedrich Ebert * Presidential Acceptance speech - "Freedom, Justice and Social Welfare" *
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If a country was involved in any kind of dispute with another country, it was supposed to appeal the League for help and countries should protect each other if invaded. Also sanctions were to be imposed if a member of the League broke one of these rules and forced if necessary. In 1920 the economy in the United States expanded rapidly, so more people bought products so there was more factory production and this lead to more jobs and as a result people had more Money and therefore there were more jobs, and this was a continous cycle but not
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Study Sources A & B. How far does A prove that Haig did not care about the lives of his men? Explain your answer using the sources and your own knowledge.
If Haig had cared about the lives of his men he wouldn't have put them in a situation where he knew a great number would not survive. On the other hand Source A also infers that Haig is just trying to be realistic about the fact that in warding off the "Hun", Britain will have to incur some loss of life. This can be seen in the line "no superiority of arms and ammunition, however great, will enable victories to be won without the sacrifice of men's' lives".
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We also know that barbed wire was an important part of Germany's frontline defence. The fact that Coppard is unlikely to lie due to his previous position and the fact that we know from our historical knowledge that Coppard's depiction is a reasonable frontline image of the battle, we can say that Source C is pretty reliable. Another reason why source C could be viewed as reliable is the fact that Private Coppard is unlikely to forget something so devastating and traumatic.
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In 1933, the year Hitler is elected chancellor, Hitler directly violates this clause by rearming Germany. If Britain or France had opposed of this now, then no war would have started as Germany did not have the resources to beat a major country that have not had their military limited. Nevertheless, intervening now would mean that Germany had to be eternally shamed for their defeat in WWI. Stepping in as soon Germany started to rebuild itself would be treating Germany as if it was a little child who had to be constantly watched and could not be trusted with too much power.
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After this, Constantinople needed to be taken out thus knocking turkey out of the war. Then the navy could bring desperate supplies through the Dardanelles into the sea of Mamara and then through Bosporus to get into the black sea An ill thought-out plan: Churchill put forward the Gallipoli campaign to the war council stating that it could bring the war to a quick end by enabling Russia to fight more effectively on the eastern front, take turkey out of the war and encourage the surrounding countries that they should join the triple entente. The war council were convinced.
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Was Hitler the cause of WW2? A.J.P Taylor wrote the controversial The origins of the second World War, he challenged the view that Hitler had been an uniquely evil plotter of war by presenting a view of Hitler as an opportunist, who had enjoyed muc
However, Taylor did state Hitler as "in wicked acts he outdid them all..." Furthermore, Hitler's actions suggest he is responsible for war because he attacked Europe in his attempt to gain control. He believed that the Germans would be far better at managing the resources of Europe and wanted to destroy all of the people who were inferior. England was his big problem. They didn't particularly want to surrender and the English Channel was a bit of a problem for him, so he couldn't just drive his tanks across the border and claim victory.
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This led to tension causing a naval race which saw Germany and Great Britain go to war in 1914. Also accompanied by the naval race was an arms race. Germany's army was not the biggest but most historians agreed it was the best trained and most powerful. This increasingly worried Britain and France who decided to increase the pace of their own armament production and Germany responded by also increasing her own army and weapons that were needed to equip them. A second reason why the war broke out was to do with tension caused by the alliance system which was supposed to preserve the peace in Europe.
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The league decided to keep the islands under Finland's control, but no weapons can ever be kept there. The decision was acknowledged and is still in effect. The Treaty of Versailles gave the citizens of Upper Silesia (1921) a choice if they wanted to be governed by Germany or Poland. 700,000 people voted for Germany and 500,000 for Poland. A vote so close caused riots between the two parties and the League of Nations were asked to resolve the quarrel. The League decided to split Upper Silesia between Germany and Poland, two thirds to given to Germany and one third to Poland. This verdict was accepted by both Germany and Poland and also the population of Upper Silesia.
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the general election of 1920 when the more 'isolationist' republicans triumphed over the more 'interventionist' democrats and there was a deadlock in the U.S government, making it unable to ratify the covenant of the League of Nations and so ignore its international responsibilities, the cartoonist points out. (b) Explain why the League of Nations was established. The League of Nations was established very much as the centrepiece for Wilson's 'new world order' Open and collective discussion was to replace secret diplomacy, such as the Triple Entente which Wilson believed had led to the war in the first place.
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"Tsarism collapsed at the beginning of 1917 because Nicholas was a weak Tsar who did not listen to his advisors". Use the sources, and your own knowledge to explain whether or not you agree with this view.
Taking up this position also meant that he was away from Petrograd for a long time and now relied on other people for information about Petrograd. He received regular reports from Rodzianko, the president of the Duma about the situation in Petrograd and also letters from his wife, the Tsarina. Instead of listening to the ministers and advisor's reports describing the severe unrest in Petrograd, he readily chose to believe the Tsarina's letters which informed him of minor incidents which would soon pass, as an example of which we can see, in source F, a letter from the Tsarina.
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