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GCSE: International relations 1900-1939
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How fair is Louise Shaw's Interpretation on Chamberlain? The interpretation revolves around the idea that a pact between Britain and the Soviet Union could have been a turning point in stopping or discouraging Hitler
This seems to be corroborated by the failed attempt by Hitler to invade Austria in 1934; Mussolini, in line with an agreement signed with Austria simply put troops on Austrian border and deterred Germany?s forces. This goes to show that Hitler did not force through his expansionist agenda if he was met with adequate military response. If the Soviet and British military had combined to fight German forces, it can be argued that Hitler would have acquired less resources that made the war so devastating on such a large scale.
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The generals on all sides were calling out for a technological way to beat the trenches and the near lunar landscape that was left behind after the constant bombardment of both sides. For the British their inspiration came from a tractor made by the Holt company that used a new caterpillar track design. This design was first adopted in 1914 by the Landship Committee which was set up by the First Lord of the Admiralty, Winston Churchill. His involvement would be crucial to the acceptability and the longevity of the tank.
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This showed Germany that Britain, France and America were strong countries, and discouraged them from attacking again. The war guilt clause was a clause that stated that Germany should accept all blame for the war; this was fair in a way because Germany had been the main country to start the war, and other countries joined to defend themselves or to support Germany. The treaty, although not successful, did a good job of trying to prevent a second war. It limited German troops to 100,000, and banned conscription this meant that if Germany did attack, its attack would be weak and therefore less likely to cause a full blown world war.
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They were also used as a tactic to outflank the opponent has seen in the race to the sea. , Which involved the Germans and British digging trenches to the channel to attempt to break through the enemy lines. Trench warfare became a war of attrition, in which the aim was to cause as many enemy casualties as possible and have a negative impact on the opposition?s war effort. Trenchers became increasingly complex and were mainly in three parts; the front line, reserve lines and support lines.
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The routine of trench life was strict and well maintained men had to wake up half an hour before dawn and ?stand to? meaning standing on the fire step with the rifle ready in case of an attack. Men slept in either underground dugouts or funk holes, which were carved out spaces at the side of the trench, where they could escape from the rain and wind.
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Causing casualties was the main aim of artillery bombardment, as this meant that the injured troops would have to be taken to hospital, be treated, and then be sent back to the battlefield, affecting the opposition?s effort. It is obvious that without assistance from artillery, the front line could not do their job as easily as they would've wanted to. Large scale infantry attacks were a few in number, as the main warfare style was in fact the war of attrition in trenches.
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This group had links to the Serbian government and was also secretly supported by them. One day when Princip and his friends were at a pub they heard news that Archduke Franz Ferdinand was visiting Sarajevo and furthermore he was visiting on June 28th, a very important holy day for the Serbian Orthodox church. This made matters worse, and was seen as an opportunity for Princip and his group to strike against the Austro-Hungarian empire. In addition, there were many Serbs living in Bosnia under the rule of Austria Hungary. The Black Hand seeked to protect Serbs everywhere against any threats, and Princip and his group saw Austro-Hungarian rule and the visit of France Ferdinand, the heir to the throne of the Austro-Hungarian empire, as a threat.
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The first reason the German people resented the Treaty of Versailles was because of the large reparations of £6600 million that had to be paid. Not only was this huge sum of money, but since other countries had very small reparations to pay, the Germans felt that they were blamed for the causing of the war, which they felt was not right. These reparations took a large toll on the German economy. This eventually led to hyperinflation and also lead to less money being able to be spent on the public, and it was very difficult for Germany to pay this off.
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Another way he worked when he was Chancellor in 1923, was that he ended passive resistance in the role after the French occupied it. The passive resistance was costing the German economy a lot, but Stresemann ended it to recover the economy. This greatly assisted the paying of the reparations. However, this was not the only reason that Germany was able to pay reparations. When Stresemann became foreign minister in 1924, he was able to set up the Dawes plan, which meant that the USA was lending Germany money to aid its paying of the reparations, which also set in place the loan cycle.
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This strongly supports the fact that the Belgians resisted the Schlieffen plan and cause it to fail. Moreover it is known that the Germans did not expect much resistance from the British suggesting that they were somewhat unprepared for the events that took place. Even if the Belgian resistance did not directly put a stop to the Schlieffen plan, it definitely bought enough time for the British and the French troops to mobilise.
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The British took a harsh stance killing thousands of Arabs, burning down their villages in putting down the revolt. However the British knew this stance they had taken was unsustainable and they had to devise a new solution. That is why the Peel commission was eventually formed. One key feature of the Peel Commission was the plan itself. Firstly, the commission proposed a partition of Palestine into a largely Arab land, but it also included some Jewish territories whilst the corridor between Jerusalem and Jaffa was kept under UN control.
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Another source also states that Tanks ?affected the moral of British soldiers? who were often excited to have such a special weapon supporting them in their advance- this increase in moral coincided with a decrease in moral for the Germans as they were defeated. Source A shows the rapid advance made by the tanks, leaving behind a trail of dead bodies, and covering the infantry in the foreground. This source conveys the power of the tanks which helped protect the infantry minimising their loses.
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A source states that states that soldiers were given ?inaccurate maps? which meant that officers often had to blindly guide their troops through terrain which they were unfamiliar with, unlike the Turks who were clearly superior on their own strip of land. With the six week delay between the ground troops arriving, and the naval bombardment, one would have thought the campaign was well organised yet ironically the soldiers were ill equipped as supplies were short. Not only does the six week delay symbolise the Gallipoli campaign, the blunders in planning gave the Turks valuable time to strengthen their defences and when the ground forces did finally arrive, they lacked grenades and even water.
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This reinforces the idea that Germany saw itself as a great nation, which was worthy of colonies of its own although this was only perceived by many as a challenge to Britain and France. Source C also depicts Germany aggression, as it shows ?The Kaiser rocking the boat? implying that Germany is the European nation that is displaying aggression and tipping the other European countries into the ocean( symbolising war) whilst the other European nations back into a corner, as they attempt to steady the boat.
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Both Sweden and Finland wanted control of the Aaland Islands which were in between the countries. Both countries were threatening to fight for them which could have expanded into a full blown war because of countries alliances with other countries, like a chain reaction. However luckily the League of Nations stepped in and made the decision that Finland should have the Islands, Both countries accepted the ruling and war was avoided. However not all of the Leagues border disputes ended so well, for example Vilna in 1920. Poland and Lithuania were two new states created by post-war treaties, Vilna was the capital of Lithuania but its population was largely polish.
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In what ways did developments in Palestine in the years 1917-48 bring about the creation of the state of Israel?
Because of this, the Balfour declaration is a significant development in the development in the creation of the state of Israel. The British in 1936 were arguably adhering to the Balfour Declaration when the Peel Commission was proposed, it suggested a partition in Palestine to allow for a Jewish homeland. The plan proposed that Tel-Aviv be included in the Jewish state as well, and this plan was embraced by most moderate Jews.
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he wouldn't have thought them that big a problem until it was too late for example Britain and France could've acted early whilst Hitler wasn't at his peak but instead they appeased him to a critical stage . The quality of this statement is weak because this was the early stages when probably Britain and France hadn't looked at Hitler as threatening since he hadn't broken any major rules...yet. Secondly Britain lost powerful allies who could've helped Britain but instead ended in the grasp of Hitler for example Hitler invaded Poland and Czechoslovakia which both have vast coal and factories benefiting him instead in use for his army which continued developing into a larger threat.
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one quarter of the globe thus holding the most power and dominance.? By the late 19th century, new nations such as Germany and Italy were rising but were not as big as the French. Stewart explains ?One of the issue that was much discussed was the various conflicts over colonial and imperial possession in the decade? This was proven as by the late 19th century a new imperial wave had been shown through mainly Africa (Source 3) as it showed the European colonisation from different nations in Africa.
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This gave Austria-Hungary confidence and led to their aggressive policies including rivaling the Balkans and Russia. As France bordered both Germany and Italy they feared that this alliance could be dangerous so they allied themselves to Russia in an effort to discourage Germany from attacking. This alliance was consolidated by the fact that they both relied heavily on each other financially. Britain soon joined them by making informal agreements with France and Russia to work together in 1904 and 1907 respectively. The alliance was named the Triple Entente. The Triple Entente frightened Germany and so they began building up their Navy to match Britain.
- Word count: 1187