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GCSE: International relations 1900-1939
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This caused peril between them, since Austria was a patchwork country. In 1911, Italy attacked Turkey, forcing them to surrender after which the Balkan league was formed, seeing a much weaker Turkey. It consisted of Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro and Serbia. The First Balkan war in 1912 saw the end of Turkey's control in Europe; however the second war was much worse. In 1913 saw Bulgaria's greed for more land grow until war was declared on Greece and Serbia. The war ended with a Bulgarian defeat having been attacked by Romania and Turkey as well.
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All these alliances meant that a small conflict between two countries would possibly up-scale into an 'unnecessary' world war because the alliances would be dragged into it. Also this would mean that war in itself would be more unlikely due to the intimidation and power spread by the world powers, but this would also mean that if there was one, it would be a large world war indeed. Secondly, one should look at the rivalry between the countries. Although a vague topic, rivalry was a large factor in the cause of WWI.
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Later, Hitler used the publicly bitter memories of the Treaty of Versailles to gain public support. Another factor in causing World War II was the Wall Street Crash of 1929 resulting in a worldwide economic depression. Not only did these cause countries such as Britain and France to take a less active foreign policy, but also it destroyed the newly found prosperity in Germany ('Golden Age'/'Roaring 20's') and left many people unemployed. The USA demanded their loans to Germany to be repaid which meant that the prosperity of the 1920s (which was mainly based on the borrowed money from the USA)
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Defeated countries, such as Germany were not allowed to join until later on, which upset them. Also, if there was any disagreement with the League, the country could just leave, resulting in lack of proper control. The fact that the League had no army of it's own made it very difficult to take any direct and effective action. If a country didn't want to do something, it asked help from the League, but the League had no powers to do anything.
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Clemenceau saw the Treaty of Versailles as an opportunity to cripple Germany, so that it could no attack France again. Describe how the Treaty of Versailles weakened Germany.
Also, a Plebiscite was to be held after 15 years to decide whether it stays German or becomes French. France were still worried Germany may fight back so they had Germany limit their army to 100,000 men, the Navy had to restrict their vessels to 10,000 tonnes, submarines were not allowed at all and their air force was restricted. This made Germany very angry because the army was a symbol of pride. Also before the war the army was ten times a bigger.
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OFFENSIVE ATTACKS ON WF FAIL AGAIN. 1918 MARCH german forces attack entente. Entente faces crucial situation but French commander Foch pushes G troops back to Marne by 30 May. JULY- Entente counter attck oushes G back to Marne. 8th AUG- "Black day of the German army." Brit attack. Ludendorff wants to resign. 4th Oct G and Austrian Gov ask armistice from Wilson based n 14 POINTS. G FAIL TO ACHIEVE WAR AIMS. Eastern Front - Central Power Weak point strategy. 1914- AUG- Russian's sudden unexpected invasion of eastern Prussia. General Hindenburg moves against Russ and crushes them at Masurian Lakes.
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will increase. This shows how rivalry between Austria-Hungary and Serbia came about 'Nationalism' could have been the reason why the Serbs were so keen on going back to Serbia, as they believed that each nationality should rule themselves, this was a very big threat to empires, as empires were built upon many nationalities, for example Austria-Hungary was made up off 11 different nationalities, meaning that if they all believed in nationalism, the empire would be separated, leaving what was once a strong and powerful empire weak and wounded.
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They would feel confident as they would have had a bigger ally to back them up, the lone of ally's goes on until many countries are dragged into the war. The chain reaction got Russia and Germany involved, and later Britain and France. Without the Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente, we would just have had a minor war between Austria - Hungary and Serbia. Another key long term cause was Nationalism. Nationalism is a devotion and pride in a country.
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The Causes of WW1. The First World War was a war of turbulence. It was ironic a war that issued over 35 million deaths was thought by most other people at the time as a defensive war.
The Balkans was an unstable area in the early 20th century. In 1908, the Austrians took Bosnia and Herzegovnia. Russia and Serbia objected, but Germany supported Austria, and so Russia and Serbia backed down. However, Austria and Hungary did not give Serbia its loyalty. The emperor Franz Ferdinand had in mind to give the Serbians their loyalty.
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Why did the first world war break out in 1914? I will be discussing the six main causes: The alliance system, imperial rivalry, arms race and naval race, the Moroccan crisis, Balkan troubles, and the assassination in Sarajevo.
This tiny event, of course, did happen, and the Alliance system pulled the whole of Europe into the fighting. Without the Alliance system, I think war was less likely to happen, but even if it did, it could be resolved quicker, as there would only be two countries fighting instead of six or more. In my view, the second most important cause was the assassination of Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo. I believe that this was important, as it was the small incident that set everything off. Franz Ferdinand was the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, so when the Serbian assassinator Gavrilo Pricip murdered him, it was the excuse that Austria-Hungary needed to declare war on Serbia, and wipe the annoying little country off the map.
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For all we know, stamping out Hitler's actions then could have led to his dreams being crushed and therefore no war. However, because of blatant self-interest by France and Britain, Hitler was allowed to remilitarise the Rhineland without any opposition. The British government justified this by arguing that the Rhineland was Germany's "back garden", but in reality, the remilitarisation of the Rhineland led to a domino effect and chain reaction for the rest of Hitler's aggressive actions. Furthermore, it can be argued that it was appeasement that allowed Germany to grow too strong.
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Trench warfare. Trench warfare was created to help hold your position and fend of the attacking soldiers. The idea has been used before in other wars but it was put in to a larger use during WWI.
The Opening Clash was really the first battle to the war that took place in september. "The first days of September were dark, desperate hours for the Allied armies fighting in France...The Battle of the Marne (September 6-10) stopped the Germans in their tracks and forced them to pull back...the Allied armies were too weak and tired to chase the Germans as they withdrew from the battle of Marne. This gave them time to dig... By December 1914, trench warfare--the horrible deadlock that characterized the First World War--had arrived."(Bosco, Peter I)
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He had Italy's armed forces prepared and ordered the invasion of Abyssinia in 1935. The Abyssinian emperor Haile Selassie appealed to the league for help. The League agreed to commence negotiations with Mussolini to settle the dispute, but they handled it terribly. At the first the leading members of the league, Britain and France didn't take the problem seriously enough. They both desperately wanted to maintain good relations with Mussolini as he was potentially a strong ally against Hitler's Nazi Germany. In 1935 Britain, France and Italy signed the Stresa Pact, an agreement to stand against Germany.
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By then, Japan had been in complete control of Manchuria for nearly a year, and had renamed it Manchukuo. The report did not recommend either economic or military sanctions. The League accepted the report, agreeing that Japanese claims were valid, but that Japan was wrong to have used force and should, therefore, withdraw its troops. Japan then simply left the League in February 1933. Mussolini was so encouraged by the lack of effective League action during the Manchurian Crisis that, from 1932, he began detailed planning for the conquest of Abyssinia. In October 1935, Italy invaded Abyssinia. The League, now supported by Britain and France, began to take a tougher line.
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I will now go on to explain in great detail how the Schlieffen Plan changed in contrast to how it was supposed to work. Germany expected that after Belgium had been invaded, they could go on through northern France. Germany thought they would go unopposed by Britain, but Britain had signed the treaty of London 91859) which stated that Britain would support Belgium if they were attacked. Schlieffen's other reasons for invading France from the north was that is where the industry was (raw materials and resources)
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The following were equally important reasons why the stalemate on the western front was broken: The tank, American Entry, naval blockade and March offensive.
The tanks as first introduced in the Battle of the Somme 1916, were its main goal was to break through the enemies barbed wire, clear the trenches with machine guns and destroy their machine gun posts. The tanks had very little success in completing its main purpose. Instead I believe it did a better job in intimidating the opponent. If anything the tank didn't help in breaking the stalemate but instead contributed on the stalemate of the western front. Lloyd George had praised the Tank after it was created and labeled it "A war winning machine".
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Why was a victory like Vimy Ridge so important to the Canadian soldiers, the people back home in Canada, and indeed the Allies in general during the war?
By capturing the Ridge which was the key to the German defence system, it benefited the Allies because of its naturally strong defence (trench systems, and underground tunnels linking natural caves). Success was achieved by Canadians at Vimy Ridge because they studied previous attempts to capture the ridge and in doing so constructed a detailed and thorough plan, which was the reason for their won.
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Hitler and the Munich Agreement. The Munich Agreement was the final policy of appeasement that showed Hitler he could take over Europe.
Fearful of starting another war, Great Britain and the other nations of Western Europe engaged in the policy of appeasement. Appeasement is when one nation pacifies another by giving in to the other one's demands. Source A shows the passive nature of the British. Chamberlain was willing to let Germany exert its influence on weaker countries as long as war was prevented at the time. In 1937, Great Britain allowed Germany to militarize the Rhineland. Then, in March of 1938, Great Britain and France allowed Germany to unify with Austria.
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Russia was also not in the League, this meant that one of the most powerful post war nations was viewed as an outlaw state and felt that its interests were not represented. It also leads to a large amount of chaos over the following years, as Russia attempted to regain lost territory. Russia forms an alliance with Germany that allowed both of them to work around any kind of League action against them, including treaties banning German rearmament and military buildup.
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There were in fact several reasons for invading. Japan needed raw materials such as coal, iron and oil as they were lacking. Only 15% of Japan was habitable so living space was required for the growing population, Japan was suffering from depression and many people were starving, a foreign policy success would take peoples minds off of this. Japan was left out of the Treaty of Versailles when it came to giving land away so they needed to build an empire of their own.
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Was the Treaty of Versailles a Mistake? This peace treaty compelled Germany to accept the entire war guilt clause. However, as Wilson believed, this only made Germany bitter. Hence, many historians argue that the treaty of Versailles was the
Source 1- a British cartoon drawn subsequent to the treaty of Versailles argues against the treaty. In it is the USA president, Italy, Britain and Clemenceau, the French Priminister. Clemenceau nicknamed Tiger, sees a child crying. Above the child is the writing 'class of 1914'. These children would grow up to become soldiers of World War II. Hence, this cartoon indicates that the treaty of Versailles made Germany bitter and Germany would come for revenge. Source 2, in hindsight, also argues that the treaty was a mistake. It argues that the treaty failed to create peace and failed to weaken Germany for long enough.
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WW1. Some historians agree with the statement that the war at sea was more important the Western Front while others dont. In my opinion, it was obvious that the war at sea was much more essential than the western front. Here are some reasons to s
If you see the western front, they always had thousands of casualties with little gain for immense number of battles they had. However, it took only a few fighting at the war at sea therefore they had much less casualties. Second of all, because the war at the sea was about getting supplies such as food and weapons blocked, both sides were very cautious about it. One little tiny mistake would've led them to losing.
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mutinied * The Generals then tolled Keiser that he no longer controlled his armed forces * 8th August 1918 * General Groener - Kaiser's Staff HQ 1918 o "Today oaths of loyalty have no substance" o The Kaiser was stunned * "Betrayal, utter betrayal!" * Flees to Holland o In his place there is a power vacuum * Reichstag - the German parliament was put back into control * Rather than the King and the Army o The socialist party was the largest * Their leader was Friedrich Ebert * Presidential Acceptance speech - "Freedom, Justice and Social Welfare" *
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Were the Heavy Allied Casualties on The Western Front Caused Mainly by the Tactics Used by Commanders?
Trench life was a terrible aspect of the war that lead to many unpleasant deaths, and because antibiotics such as penicillin had not been invented many diseases in the trenches were unable to be attended to with suitable treatment or in sterile conditions. There were many cases of tactically unsound strategy being implemented throughout the war; however, this was clearly not the only reason for casualties as shown above. To clarify the meaning of the question, the fundamentals of the point of discussion must be made clear before considering the subject further.
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