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GCSE: International relations 1900-1939
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This happened on 31st July 1914 when the Russians assembled their forces upon the Germans. The consequence of this was that this led to Germany declaring war on Russia on 1st August 1914. Other countries now became involved. On the same day, the British foreign secretary proposed to the Germans that Britain would stay neutral if no attacks were made on France. Propaganda Poster I think that this was a significant cause of the war as it was the first one.
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France wanted to punish and cripple Germany so that they could not start another way. France and Britain were in no mood to be considerate after the millions of people that were killed in World War 1. The Treaty of Versailles served two purposes, to humiliate Germany and make sure she did not start another war. They accomplished the first purpose, however failing at the second purpose. One of the main parts of the Treaty of Versailles that punished Germany the most includes a number of territorial terms. This included Alsace-Lorraine being returned to France; West Posen, Upper Silesia and Posen were given to Poland; Eupen Maldemy was lost to Belgium.
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What was the ?delivery system? of the European armies? the railway network of Europe b. Describe the challenges of this ?delivery systems.? Before the railway system brought people of Europe closer together in peaceful trade, now held them fast in war; the generals demand more men, more guns, and more shells to hammer the enemy 5) What battle patterns did generals follow on the Western front? The two sides, each made up of millions of men, confronted each other below ground level 6)
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He also wants to build up his army to prove Germany was still the Great power and to expand in east, probably against communist USSR- Hitler hated Communist. This aim was probably intended for future confirmed as the greatest power in Europe. The first stage of Germans struggle would be to strengthen its lands in Europe. He couldn?t do it alone; Hitler felt the main enemies will be France and USSR, so his aim was to get friendship with Italy and Britain against them.
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One was Hitler?s ideology which demanded the addition of ?lebensraum?, living space, to Germany's borders. The arable land in Czechoslovakia provided living resources (food, shelter) and so was ideal for fulfilling his aim. Czechoslovakia also provided Germany with strategic benefit. By overtaking one of its border nations, Germany could strengthen its own defences. Furthermore, possession of Czechoslovakia would provide Germany with improved access to eastern lands that Hitler also sought to acquire- Poland for example. Germany also lacked the natural resources of its rivals so expansion was necessary to fuel Hitler's further ambition, and Czechoslovakia was rich in industrial and mineral resources.
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This agreement simply implied that Germany had the right to rearm which broke a term of the Treaty of Versailles. The Rhineland was demilitarised by the Treaty of Versailles which Germany accepted by signing the Locarno Treaties in 1925. Although, the League of Nations was busy with sorting out Italy?s invasion of Abyssinia. Hitler took this opportunity and claimed that the action of Russia and France recently making a treaty against German attacks, threatened Germany and that he should be allowed to put troops on Germany?s borders.
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?The first essential is the expulsion of the Marxist poison from the body of our nation.? (Hitler?s Mein Kampf, 1924) Here Hitler is saying that the first priority for the German nation was to dispose of all communist ideas in it, which he rapidly did when he went into power. This could be interpreted as the most important factor to cause World War II because Hitler had been motivated by the unjust treaty to take extreme measures in Europe, for example the invasion of Czechoslovakia and the remilitarisation of the Rhineland.
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to prepare for war and would realise there wasn?t any hope by the time they were ready ( this could take up to three months because they weren?t as developed as France and Germany. Unfortunately for the Germans the heir to the Austria-Hungarian Empire Franz Ferdinand and his wife took a trip to Serbia where a terrorist gang named the black hands planned to assassinate him.
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The first action that Japan did to threaten the relationship with the U.S. was an obvious defiance of the Open doors policy by marching Japanese troops into Manchuria in September of 1931. The reason for the invasion was the nationalists and militarists,responding to the worsening economic conditions, had convinced the emperor, that invading China and Southeast Asia was the best way to guarantee the access to raw materials such as oil tin and iron. The U.S. responded with the Stimson Doctrine that said the U.S.
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The USSR and Germany were also not consulted and invited to join. The victorious powers did not really agree amongst themselves concerning the League, continuing their arguing regarding the Treaty of Versailles. As a result of the USA not joining the League, trade sanctions placed on those who had disobeyed the terms of the League were useless, as America could then trade with the nation who had been restricted. Decisions also had to be unanimous between the League, meaning that decisions were difficult to make and agree upon.
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Which factor contributed more to the weakness of the League of Nations, its membership or its organisation and peacekeeping powers?
Britain and France did not closethe Suez Canal and stop Italy from transporting weapons to Africa ) as they wanted Mussolini to be on their side against Hitler, which could be seen from the Hoare-Laval Pact which Britain and France secretly gave Abyssinia to Italy. The fact that America and USSR did not join the League also meant that the only powerful nation in the East was Japan and therefore when Japan decided to go against the League and take Manchuria, it was very difficult for the League to look into the issue and use military forces, as the Europeans had to travel half the world to China, and the supply chain would be very long.
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Explain how the failure of collective security and German foreign policy goals and achievements can be seen as the cause of World War II?
Collective Security was a system of security arrangement to protect minor countries that have been militaristically bullied. The main penalty was imposing economic sanctions against the aggressors. Failure to silence aggressors included events such as Japan?s Manchurian Crisis in 1931 and when Italy invaded Abyssinia in 1935. The failing reactions of the League towards these aggressive events were signs of declining confidence and influence. It was generally creating a poor performance rate of the League, a very delayed, indecisive, and ineffective performance with an image of minimum jurisdiction.
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Britain did the same and this began a race for building more and better warships. Germany was competing with the UK to build battle ships. The British feared an attack on their Empire. In opinion I think the most significant cause was system of Alliances because if there wasn?t any alliance there would be no war. Alliances were agreements or promises between two or more countries that allow them to support and help another. If other countries didn?t start coming into Austria-Hungary?s war with Serbia, it would not have turned into a major war. This was the cause that involved may other countries into the war.
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The King asked Mussolini to form a new government. On October 31, Mussolini became Prime Minister in a coalition government of Fascists, Nationalists, Catholics, and right-wing Liberals. Power was thus put into Mussolini's hands. (c) Why was there an increased support for Mussolini and the Fascist Party in the 1920s? There was an increased support for Mussolini and the Fascist Party in the 1920s for many reasons. There was a general atmosphere of disillusionment and frustration in Italy by the summer of 1919 caused by disappointment at her gains from the peace settlement, the disastrous effect of the war on the economy and the standard of living and growing contempt for the liberal parliamentary system.
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There were a number of flaws with this plan, which meant that the Germans were left floundering in northern France months after they were supposed to have been in Russia. Firstly, the Germans had not considered that the Belgians would resist. The Belgian army was nearly wiped out by December 1914, however they had slowed they Germans down significantly, particularly in their fortified bases in Antwerp and Liege, so that they were still in Belgium well after their 6-week deadline to be in Paris.
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Preserving peace between the alliance countries was priority, but priority was NOT to preserve peace with opposing alliance 1. The Schliefen Plan: German General came up with this plan to attack France by going through Belgium (Neutral) and not going through France and Germany?s shared border. The Germans would then attack Russia. 1. In 1st decade of 20th century, France and Germany had old rivalry Kaiser Wilhelm?s History + Germany 1. More recently, rivalry developed bet. Britain & Germany 1. Kaiser of Germany = Kaiser Wilhelm II 1. Wilhelm wanted Germany to be strong, respected military country 1. Wilhelm?s childhood= rocky 1. He was partially deaf 1. Did not balance well on his feet 1. Very strict parents 1.
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Austria-Hungary had 810,000 soldiers and 28 warships. Italy had 750,000 soldiers and 36 warships. France had 1,125,000 soldiers and 62 warships. Russia had 1,200,000 soldiers and 30 warships. Great Britain had 711,000 soldiers and 185 warships. In Europe there were 6796000 soldiers and 438 warships. Alliances As well as seeking protection in the size of their armies, the countries of Europe sought protection by forming alliances. The countries of Europe thought that the alliance system would act as a deterrent to war; in fact it tied the countries together so that, when one country went to war, the others felt themselves obliged to follow.
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As Clemenceau wanted to blame Germany for everything about the war, spreading the war guilt to countries in Germany?s side, such as, Austria and Hungary, and admitting Germany in to the League of Nations, would have been impossible it the circumstances. The fourth point, insist on disarmament would have been impossible to add because when the German president read the treaty, he would probably not sign the treaty as he would still want weapons in case of an invasion. The final point, tie USA to Europe, would have been quite hard because Wilson wanted to concentrate on America rather than Europe as he was mainly focusing on that in the past.
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The first 26 clauses dealt with the establishment of the League of Nations. The remaining 414 clauses spelled out Germany's punishment. Article 231 of the Treaty of Versailles, known as the War Guilt Clause, was a statement that Germany was responsible for beginning World War I. It reads as follows: "The Allied and Associated Governments affirm and Germany accepts the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associated Governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her allies."
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How did the weakness of the League of Nations and the effect of the Manchurian crisis, the failure of disarmament and the Abyssinian crisis allow Hitler to achieve what he did?
Little did they know that this was only the beginning of Hitler?s quest for ultimate supremacy. The League was further undermined because they did not uphold the Peace treaties which had created it. Germany basically walked over the Treaty of Versailles, disregarding most of the things it was not allowed to do. For example, one of the main terms of the Treaty was that the Rhineland would remain a demilitarised area, but instead Hitler took a huge risk by moving troops into the area, knowing that if he was forced to withdraw he would face humiliation and would lose the support of the German army .
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What was the most important reason for the outbreak of the First World War: The Alliance System or The Assassination?
European powers were seeking power by expanding their military (militarism). They also sought power by forming alliances with other main European powers. In 1870 France lost Alsace Lorraine to Germany in a war leading to France fearing more attacks. Germany were also worried that France would attack them to get the land back. In 1879 Kaiser Wilhelm created The Dual Alliance between Germany and Austria-Hungary. In 1882, Italy became part of this alliance which was renamed The Triple Alliance. They believed that together they would be strong enough to prevent their historic enemies, France and Russia, from attacking them.
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Traditionally, even though they are both German speaking countries these two countries had separate empires, and Austria tended to be the strongest of the pair. So, because Wilson was determined to allow self-determination for all Europeans, to him if Austria wanted to create a union with Germany they should be allowed. However, Clemenceau?s view was very much different. He wanted to keep Germany as weak and small as possible. Consequently, if they were to join forces with Austria- a powerful country- they would be able to rise and be strong once more.
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There were other important figures in the timeline of the war that directly and indirectly helped Hitler to become as supreme and mighty as he became. The Prime Minister Hideki Tojo of Japan was one of these figures, for he ordered the invasions of Manchuria (1930) and destroyed the Russian Pacific Fleet (1905) prior to Hitler invading Poland. Japan was a member of the League of Nations and this sudden imperialistic movement made the League of Nations seem weak. Let's not leave out Benito Mussolini who'd invaded Ethiopia and Libya before Hitler was even in power, Invaded the Sudan, British Somaliland colonies, and Egypt immediately following Hitler's invasion of France (which Mussolini ALSO participated in).
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