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GCSE: International relations 1900-1939
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And how militarism contributed to the commencement of world war one. Furthermore how alliances caused Europe to be divided into two dangerous sides and how this meant that if country wages war on another all the allying countries are forced to join in. lastly I will explain the final steps to the war that killed millions. World War One, otherwise known as "The Great War, or "The War to End All Wars" was a conflict so traumatic and so ghastly, that when it finally ended, not only had the map of the world changed beyond all recognition, but the world itself would never again be the same.
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If a country was involved in any kind of dispute with another country, it was supposed to appeal the League for help and countries should protect each other if invaded. Also sanctions were to be imposed if a member of the League broke one of these rules and forced if necessary. In 1920 the economy in the United States expanded rapidly, so more people bought products so there was more factory production and this lead to more jobs and as a result people had more Money and therefore there were more jobs, and this was a continous cycle but not
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Study Sources A & B. How far does A prove that Haig did not care about the lives of his men? Explain your answer using the sources and your own knowledge.
If Haig had cared about the lives of his men he wouldn't have put them in a situation where he knew a great number would not survive. On the other hand Source A also infers that Haig is just trying to be realistic about the fact that in warding off the "Hun", Britain will have to incur some loss of life. This can be seen in the line "no superiority of arms and ammunition, however great, will enable victories to be won without the sacrifice of men's' lives".
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We also know that barbed wire was an important part of Germany's frontline defence. The fact that Coppard is unlikely to lie due to his previous position and the fact that we know from our historical knowledge that Coppard's depiction is a reasonable frontline image of the battle, we can say that Source C is pretty reliable. Another reason why source C could be viewed as reliable is the fact that Private Coppard is unlikely to forget something so devastating and traumatic.
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a) I think the reparations clause was inserted into the treaty because Belgium and France share long land borders with Germany, and many towns, villages, buildings etc. Were destroyed during the war. b) The war guilt clause was made to justify the other terms of the treaty and to make Germany accept this as the reason for the treaty. c) The loss of territory clause was made because Alsace and Lorraine were originally part of France but was lost to Germany in wars before World War One.
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In 1933, the year Hitler is elected chancellor, Hitler directly violates this clause by rearming Germany. If Britain or France had opposed of this now, then no war would have started as Germany did not have the resources to beat a major country that have not had their military limited. Nevertheless, intervening now would mean that Germany had to be eternally shamed for their defeat in WWI. Stepping in as soon Germany started to rebuild itself would be treating Germany as if it was a little child who had to be constantly watched and could not be trusted with too much power.
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After this, Constantinople needed to be taken out thus knocking turkey out of the war. Then the navy could bring desperate supplies through the Dardanelles into the sea of Mamara and then through Bosporus to get into the black sea An ill thought-out plan: Churchill put forward the Gallipoli campaign to the war council stating that it could bring the war to a quick end by enabling Russia to fight more effectively on the eastern front, take turkey out of the war and encourage the surrounding countries that they should join the triple entente. The war council were convinced.
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To what extent was the economic crash of 1929, and the depression which followed, damaging to the League?
One party promised to solve all of Germany's problems, both economic and social. The NAZI party, led by Adolf Hitler, quickly rose to power and they made no secret of the fact that they wanted to overturn the Treaty of Versailles and regain lost German territory. However, Britain were also suffering from high unemployment following the crash and were unwilling to get involved in sorting out international disputes when its own economy was suffering and so didn't help against the growing threat in Germany.
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Was Hitler the cause of WW2? A.J.P Taylor wrote the controversial The origins of the second World War, he challenged the view that Hitler had been an uniquely evil plotter of war by presenting a view of Hitler as an opportunist, who had enjoyed muc
However, Taylor did state Hitler as "in wicked acts he outdid them all..." Furthermore, Hitler's actions suggest he is responsible for war because he attacked Europe in his attempt to gain control. He believed that the Germans would be far better at managing the resources of Europe and wanted to destroy all of the people who were inferior. England was his big problem. They didn't particularly want to surrender and the English Channel was a bit of a problem for him, so he couldn't just drive his tanks across the border and claim victory.
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The date is September 1939, it was from the time of the events were happening, therefore it is a primary source, but the time was during censorship, so therefore the purpose of the source is questioned. From my own knowledge in September 1939, the Phoney War had just taken place and the British government wanted to encourage parents to send their children away for people to foster them. Source C is an interview in 1988 with a teacher who tells of her account as a teacher being evacuated with children from her school. Firstly, it is an interview in 1988.
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While the invasion itself was a successful operation it caused havoc back in the United States. As demonstrated when 100,000 protesters showed up in Washington D.C. to demonstrate their anger with the decision of invasion2. Nixon's policy of "Vietnamization"3, which included training Vietnamese soldiers to replace American soldiers, worked well and by 1971 has sent many American troops back to the United States. At the same time Nixon also had his right-hand man Henry Kissinger in secret discussion with North Vietnamese forces, discussing peace negotiations. America and North Vietnam reached a ceasefire agreement on January 27, 1973, which officially withdrew Americans from Vietnam and allowed them to achieve "peace with honor"4.
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This led to tension causing a naval race which saw Germany and Great Britain go to war in 1914. Also accompanied by the naval race was an arms race. Germany's army was not the biggest but most historians agreed it was the best trained and most powerful. This increasingly worried Britain and France who decided to increase the pace of their own armament production and Germany responded by also increasing her own army and weapons that were needed to equip them. A second reason why the war broke out was to do with tension caused by the alliance system which was supposed to preserve the peace in Europe.
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The league decided to keep the islands under Finland's control, but no weapons can ever be kept there. The decision was acknowledged and is still in effect. The Treaty of Versailles gave the citizens of Upper Silesia (1921) a choice if they wanted to be governed by Germany or Poland. 700,000 people voted for Germany and 500,000 for Poland. A vote so close caused riots between the two parties and the League of Nations were asked to resolve the quarrel. The League decided to split Upper Silesia between Germany and Poland, two thirds to given to Germany and one third to Poland. This verdict was accepted by both Germany and Poland and also the population of Upper Silesia.
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the general election of 1920 when the more 'isolationist' republicans triumphed over the more 'interventionist' democrats and there was a deadlock in the U.S government, making it unable to ratify the covenant of the League of Nations and so ignore its international responsibilities, the cartoonist points out. (b) Explain why the League of Nations was established. The League of Nations was established very much as the centrepiece for Wilson's 'new world order' Open and collective discussion was to replace secret diplomacy, such as the Triple Entente which Wilson believed had led to the war in the first place.
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"Tsarism collapsed at the beginning of 1917 because Nicholas was a weak Tsar who did not listen to his advisors". Use the sources, and your own knowledge to explain whether or not you agree with this view.
Taking up this position also meant that he was away from Petrograd for a long time and now relied on other people for information about Petrograd. He received regular reports from Rodzianko, the president of the Duma about the situation in Petrograd and also letters from his wife, the Tsarina. Instead of listening to the ministers and advisor's reports describing the severe unrest in Petrograd, he readily chose to believe the Tsarina's letters which informed him of minor incidents which would soon pass, as an example of which we can see, in source F, a letter from the Tsarina.
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Use the sources ( E and F), and your own knowledge, to explain why the situation in Petrograd began to get out of hand in late February 1917
He says "they begin processions towards the centre of the city" which shows that the people protest, as they are not happy with the situation of Petrograd. Trotsky tells us the situation is out of hand, and in Source F although the Tsarina also admits that there is trouble in her letter written on 24 February 1917, she thinks the problems will be resolved soon and are not out of hand. They both tell us there are problems, but the Tsarina says that young people run and shout that there is no bread simply to create excitement, along with workers
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And so Germany had the idea to refresh its army, as it had suffered heavy losses. When new troops were introduced in 1918, Germany's idea of a new, fresh and ready army was coming into practice. However, these new troops were inexperienced and were weak against Britain and the allies. Secondly, the German armies were winning too much land. It may sound like a good thing for them, however, this new land needed to be protected. When the German offensive "operation Michael" took place, the Germans won 1200 square miles of land, and 50 more miles of frontline.
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In February 1943, the German Army surrendered at Stalingrad, Was Hitlers interference the main reason for this defeat? Explain your answer.
However when attacking Stalingrad the army failed and in the following writing I am going to determine whether Hitler's interference is to blame for the failed attack. When Germany set out for their attack on Russia they knew that they would have to complete the assault in a short period. They set off to complete Barbarossa in June 1941 which left them until the winter before the attack would become increasingly harder. When Stalingrad was engaged in fighting on 17th July 1942, they did not have much time to attack and overrun the city.
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Treaty of Versailles. There was representatives from USA, France and Britain. Each representative had different opinions and ideas to how was the defeated going to be treated.
They had to work out terms for which the defeated countries had to sign. This took the politicians well into 1919. they had to act very quickly for there was disease and famine through Europe. The Versailles peacemakers There was representatives from USA, France and Britain. Each representative had different opinions and ideas to how was the defeated going to be treated. Woodrow Wilson. He is the America president, was an idealist who truly wanted peace after the war. He had made 14 points to prevent another war. 1. no secret treaties 2. free seas to all countries at all times 3.
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� The new all countries bring their national flag with their own caste people were concerned about. Examples of New Serbia, under the flag of all the population was Slavic, Italian speaking part of Italy they wanted around residential areas. � the right to himself as a new species or expand your business or establishment of foreign empire or maybe build a strong army from power, with two other countries want to set. 2) Imperialism increase As the Industrial Revolution was a growing demand for raw materials for factories in Europe, was a direct result of new markets for increased production.
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* Russia had to pull out of the war and Germany sent all their troops to the west. Germany wanted one last chance to destroy the alias on March 20th 1918. * Germany dropped over 1,000,000 shells onto the British lines filled with poisonous gas. In 4 days the Germans moved forward 14 miles. * The German leaders agreed if they couldn't win this battle then they couldn't win the war. * Germany's navy had only left once throughout the war. The Navy was called out to fight but the German soldiers decided not to risk their lives when peace is so close. * The Kaiser fled abroad and on 11 November the Armistice started, a cease fire.
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By the end of the first world war British rule was still strong in India but this would not be the case for much longer. Many thousands of Indians fought in the first world war believing that in return they would be given home rule of their country
Also the secretary of state for India was the government minister responsible for Indian affairs. The viceroy governed with the assistance Imperial Legislative council who passed laws for India. He also had an administration of 70 000 civil servants and soldiers who were British. The British army and police officers were also involved in governing India. However, some Indians served as police officers, lawyers, soldiers, becoming members of the Indian civil service who in charge of encouraging economic development and settling disputes. By the end of the first world war British rule was still strong in India but this would not be the case for much longer.
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As a result Long Term Cause 3 - The Arms Race:- After 1897, the German government began to build an enormous navy to challenge the British navy - one of the biggest in the world. Britain had a rule. The rule was that they must have a bigger fleet than the next two biggest in line. For example; > Britain has a navy with 20,000 ships > Germany has a navy with 11,000 ships > Russia has a navy with 8,000 ships This means that Britain have a bigger fleet than the next two in line: 20 ??11+8 = 20 ??19 = Rule Works :)
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