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GCSE: International relations 1900-1939

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  1. GCSE ESSAY- The Manchurian Dispute

    This resentment, coupled with the armament that was going on in Japan at the time, where the army had a huge influence diplomatically, meant that Britain and France felt threatened by hostile Japan, and did not want to upset them by standing against them. Japan was also on the League council, so of course the Japanese representative would not agree to any League action on Japan, a problem the League encountered later in dealing with Italian invasion of Abyssinia.

    • Word count: 527
  2. Long term Causes of World War 1

    There had been several crises before in the decade before 1914 and those involving the major powers in Europe had been settled peacefully. So did something go wrong in the handling of the crisis, or did one or more of the countries involved exploit the situation to plunge Europe into war? (The view that somehow Europe simply stumbled into World War 1 by accident is generally not accepted by historians). It is at this point that controversy begins. The Austrian Response to the assassination The Austrians delivered an "ultimatum" to Serbia an ultimatum that was almost guaranteed to be turned down by Serbia.

    • Word count: 2063
  3. How fair were the Paris Peace Treaties

    Secondly In 1917 Russia and Germany had signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk because Russia had quit the First World War after Russia had gone through a revolution. They say that the Treaty of Versailles was unfair but the Germans had made a much harsher treaty for the Russians to deal with after they quit from the war. Germany made Russia give away 54% of their industry while the treaty of Versailles had made Germany just give away 10%. Russia had lost 34% of its population, 89% of its coal mines and was fined with 132 billion marks.

    • Word count: 1075
  4. Why did Chamberlin sign the Munich Agreement on 30 September 1938?

    He said that it was 'peace in our time'. But it was not. Neville Chamberlin thought that another war would destroy civilisation. He thought that another war would corrupt Britain and he tried to avoid war rather than go to war. This war would happen with Germany so instead of being enemies with Germany he decided to sign the Munich Agreement which means peace to both countries.

    • Word count: 369
  5. Explain the Main Factors Which Led British Governments to Follow a Policy Of

    It was viewed that if Britain went to war again, then it would the risk of splitting its empire due to the reason above. Not only that but there economic problems would play a major part in Britain being destroyed. The British government and public were obsessed with economic and social problems between the wars. As a result the problem of unemployment was a burning political issue in Britain between the wars. This financial crisis and unemployment soared, and a National Government was formed in 1931.

    • Word count: 651
  6. Free essay

    Study Source A. Do you agree with this interpretation of the importance of the battle of the Somme? Use the source and knowledge from your studies to explain your answer.

    The British only gained an average of 5miles for 420,000 casualties. Haig was now starting his own battle back home to save his reputation as a military commander.In the report Haig seems to have been using the report to justify his decisions that had led to the largest loss of forces and manpower ever experienced by the British army in one battle. Haig was commander in chief during the Somme and it was his job to set the tactics for commanders to carry out.

    • Word count: 1198
  7. World War One had many causes, which can be split up into both long tem and short term. There were three long term causes,

    This led to war as Europe was divided by alliance's that were both preparing for war due to mistrust.

    • Word count: 1008
  8. Why Did war break out in 1939

    These laws included demilitarisation of the Rhineland, and various stretches of German border were given to Poland and Czechoslovakia. Also the Union which Germany had with Austria was forbidden. After a few years of living under the rules of the Treaty the British public started to feel sorry for Germany as many people felt that the Treaty was far too harsh. This, I personally, think is the first factor towards a second world war, right after the first had finished.

    • Word count: 1334
  9. The Failure Of The Schlieffen Plan

    Firstly the inflexibility of the plan played a big part of its failure. When the plan was devised Schlieffen didn't look at all the details he worked out a plan and left it at that he didn't answer all the ifs and buts. What if Belgian resisted? What if we run out of supplies? Also the plan was running on a very tight schedule, if one part took longer than expected that would mean that Russia would have longer to mobilize.

    • Word count: 632
  10. Weaknesses of League of Nations

    In addition, the members of the league argued among themselves when discussing naval disarmament even though one of the main aims of the league was to promote international cooperation. Thus, many countries lose their respect for those countries and for the league as they could not practise what they preach. Thus, their failure to obey their own principles were a major weakness as it resulted in some countries becoming reluctant to work with them. Next, another weakness of the League of Nations was their failure to exercise their authority properly.

    • Word count: 749
  11. How successful was the League of Nations?

    Both these countries were senior League members, yet there were clearly breaking the League rules. However, nothing was done about it as the League needed the support of its major backers in Europe, who were the invaders in the first place. As a result, the message conveyed to the other nations was that if you wanted to break League rules, you could. Few countries criticised what Britain and France did, but the example they set for other countries in future years was obvious. Hence, the League clearly failed on this occasion primarily because it was seen to be breaking its own rules.

    • Word count: 620
  12. Reasons for WW2

    In WW1, a new country Poland had been set up to split up East Prussia from Germany. This was very inconvenient and unfair for the Germans as it was very difficult to govern East Prussia from the government in Germnay and families had also been separated by this 'Polish Corridor'. Hence, Hitler felt it necessary to take over the 'Polish Corridor'. He wanted WW2 because he inevitably needed to use force to unify all Germans. He also wanted to conquer living space, Lebensraum.

    • Word count: 649
  13. Were the fronts of sea and air as important as the Western Front in deciding the outcome of WWI?

    These war weapons were excessively more devastating than any of the weapons used at sea or in the air. These weapons and the trenches helped to kill soldiers using 19th century tactics in 20th century warfare, another reason for the significance of the Western Front. However, none of these weapons were able to produce a breakthrough. Each side built masses of defensive systems containing things such as machine guns and barbed wire that neither side was able to gain ground from. The morale of the armies, the stubborn generals, no compromise to make peace, the forceful nature that made soldiers fight without deserting, conscription/mass recruitment and propaganda allowed this stalemate situation to continue.

    • Word count: 1453
  14. Explain the importance of the war at sea to the final outcome of WWI

    They were baring the brunt of the British navy because of the harsh blockade that was being set upon them. All German ships by the start of 1915 were safely secured in their ports along the North and Baltic Sea. The few German ships that had been across the seas of the globe had been destroyed by Britain. It was clear that there was no possible way Germany could defeat Britain through naval warfare on the surface. The blockade to stop supplies reaching Germany secured this fact.

    • Word count: 1728
  15. Explain the importance of the war in the air to the final outcome of WWI

    with a simple rotating propeller on the front. Top speeds were no more than sixty miles per hour. Pilots sat in an open cockpit with no heating, radio, parachutes or navigational instruments and they had thick coats, goggles and whale oil to protect themselves from the bitter cold. They were primarily used as a means of reconnaissance and mobile observation to fly over enemy ground, spotting various weaknesses or strengths in their lines. This was a significant improvement over the immobile observation balloons or the slow, vulnerable Zeppelins. Airships were, initially, the best forms of aircraft for fighting, more particular bombing.

    • Word count: 1418
  16. Identify and discuss cases for and against conscription in Australia in the period 1916-1918?

    Between 1916 and 1918 there were not enough men voluntarily enlisting to fight in World War One this is why some people thought we needed conscription. As people learnt about battle conditions and the death rate people were less inclined to voluntarily enlist, with numbers dwindling people thought the only way of getting numbers back up was to introduce conscription. For example in June 1916 the voluntary enlistment in the AIF was less than half of the 16500 men needed to maintain Australia's fighting capacity.

    • Word count: 1018
  17. Causes of World War 2

    Secondly, the effects of World War one left Europe and other countries in a very vulnerable state. The shift from a wartime economy to a peacetime economy caused further problems. Italy and Japan (allies of Germany in World War One) suffered from too many people and too few resources after World War I. They eventually tried to solve their problems by territorial expansion. In Germany, runaway inflation destroyed the value of money and wiped out the savings of millions of people.

    • Word count: 3414
  18. Treaty of Versailles

    It was also Germany that spread the war into western Europe, and eventually, the world, by following their 'Schlieffen Plan'. The Schlieffen Plan, forced the involvement of Belgium and France into the war, and consequently, Britain was now also involved (as it wanted to protect Belgian neutrality throughout the war). Furthermore, the entrance of Britain and France undoubtedly meant that their colonies will now be involved in the war also, thus creating a World War, all created by Germany's 'Schlieffen Plan'.

  19. The New Deal

    Furthermore, the FHA gave literacy lessons to poor children who needed education. In order to get the American economy up and running again, the Public Works Administration (PWA) was set up in 1933. This organisation intended to recover industry and unemployment relief. Eventually $4 billion was spent on construction including public buildings, Chrysler building etc. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) was a comprehensive federal agency created in 1933 for the economic development of the Tennessee River watershed. The TVA built 20 damns to control flooding, generate hydro-electrical power, and increase agricultural production and to revitalize the Tennessee Valley region.

    • Word count: 1482
  20. Franz Ferdinand Assasination

    He fired a few shots at the couple and had hit the pregnant Archduchess in the stomach and the Archduke in the neck. This essay will go through each of the main theories reasoning his murder. The theories are: > Bad planning by the police - poor security > Archduke Franz Feredinands Fault > A well planned plot by the trained assassins > Chance, luck or fate > The wrong man was killed Bad Planning and Organisation by the Police There are many reosons to prove that there was bad planning by the police.

    • Word count: 1548
  21. Free essay

    Economic consequences of the first world war

    The emergence of new economic powers after the War such as The USA and Japan aswell as the rise of Hitler and Lenin, arguably the two most important political characters of the twentieth century, came as a direct result of the war which also had major impacts on the economies of many European nations. In no way can the impact of the war be underestimated or tamed. At the very least it was a major factor in shaping the world that we live in today.

    • Word count: 1108
  22. Mao Gandhi Compare Contrast Essay

    Heeding to the colonial powers demands disturbed the economy of India and China at a large scale. Both Mao and Gandhi had to find a way on uplifting the locals and gain their rightful independence. Protesting against the corrupt government became a common sentiment. However, the mediums used were different. Along with time, the countries were deteriorating and so were the lifestyles of locals. The emergence of the two leaders brought in a new wave of radical thinking and a new 'revolution' into the minds of the local people which (as described by Rabindranath Tagore, a Nobel-Prize winning writer)

    • Word count: 1791
  23. How significant was the Night of the Long Knives in enabling Hitler to consolidate his power between 1933 and 1939?

    Hitler knew he had to control or come to an agreement with them. In this essay, I will be investigating the 'Night of the Long Knives' and other factors important in consolidating Hitler's power between 1933 and 1939. The 'Reichstag Fire Decree' was one factor in enabling Hitler to consolidate his power. He set fresh elections for 5 March 1933, hoping to gain a majority so he no longer had to compromise with the conservatives. On 27 February, the Reichstag caught fire; Marinus van der Lubbe, Ernst Torgler (chairman of the KPD) and Georgi Dimitrov (of the Soviet Comintern)

    • Word count: 1870
  24. World War I Coursework

    Another turning point in the war was Russia pulling out of the war. In October 1917, there was a Communist revolution in Russia and in March 1918, they pulled out of the war. All German troops were then transferred to the Western front; they were no longer fighting on two fronts and so were stronger on the Western front. Using the extra forces, they launched the Spring Offensive which proved very successful, however, they were too successful and supplies couldn't keep up with the, and so they had to attack. They pushed the Allies back over twenty miles, but then they ran out of supplies, meaning their troops were exhausted, underfed and had low morale.

    • Word count: 2434
  25. The Treaty of Versailles was the main cause of the outbreak of World War Two To what extent do you agree with this statement?

    The League of Nations that was set up for failure. I think that it was a false sense of security to the public. Media talk of its booming success when it was most vulnerable. Lack of key support from America and other key countries and the financial support that would bring it was almost powerless.

    • Word count: 545

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