GCSE: International relations 1945-1991
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Stalin seems to define it as a total control of the USSR over the East but the USA interprets it by saying that Russia would only have a slight influence. Roosevelt also showed lack of trust in Stalin, as we can see at sources 6 and 8. An other mistake of Roosevelt was that he allowed Russia to move border into Poland as long as Russia didn't interfere with Greece. This clearly shows how the USA wanted to prevent the wide spreading of communism in Europe.
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The policy was a response to a series of moves by the Soviet Union to enlarge communism in places like Eastern Europe, China, Korea and Vietnam. The two sides decided to use other countries to fight for them, for example: they fought each other's allies. The US fought against North Vietnam, a pro-soviet country in the Vietnam War. They helped their allies to fight each other.
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Then USA overreacted to the situation instead of renegotiating a new deal and placed an embargo on Cuba by breaking all business ties with Cuba. This now left Cuba with only one option, to find another trading partner, and USSR was interested. This made USA more suspicious of Castro's intentions as his nationalizing of companies move was a very communist move and that now he was trading with communists. USA once again overreacted to the situation by burning all the crops bought by USSR from Cuba, which meant that if there was nothing to trade then they shouldn't trade and not be partners, an attempt of USA's to end the relationship of Cuba and USSR.
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It was the first time the US had stepped in to back up the opponent of communism. So, they adopted this aggressive foreign policy here to contain the spread of communism from the East to the West of Europe, which meant that eventually communism would spread into USA. The USSR found this offensive to them and they responded by setting up the COMINFORM to co-ordinate their satellite states and to make sure everything that happened in those states was by Stalin's commands. To be able to "contain" the spread of communism, which USA believed succeeded when people faced poverty and hardship (like how Europe was after World War 2), they began the Marshall plan.
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* This created Bizonia (Two Zones), which France later joined, so was then called Trizonia. The Deutschmark in Berlin * Deutschmark alarmed USSR, which saw reunited strong Germany as a threat. * On the 23rd of June 1948 the Western Powers decided to introduce the Deutschmark to their zones in Berlin. * Once the currency in Germany was split, Berliners found the Deutschmark was worth more than the soviet currency, so preferred it.
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The strategic bombing campaign significantly shortened the length of the World War II. This Strategy not only saved the lives of thousands of American solders by not repeating the battle of Peleliu and Iwo Jima, but also saved a huge number of lives of Japanese army and civilians because many of them are ready to be scarified if US planned to land. However, the only question is - why US wanted to put forward to end the war in such a hurry pace?
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* This was especially evident in Berlin. In East Berlin, living conditions were poor; however, in West Berlin the living conditions were much better. This was deliberately done by the Western powers to attract people living in East Berlin. They western powers: filled West Berlin with shops full of goods and allowed East Germans to watch West German television. * It was very tempting for the people of East Berlin to travel to West Berlin.
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* The government used propaganda to cover up the short comings of their industries. * Poland had official trade unions, but as most countries, they were ineffective. How effective was solidarity?: * In the late 1970s, Polish leaders began setting up small, independent, trade unions. Many strikes broke out in 1980. Solidarity (a trade union) grew in strength over the next 6 months. * July 1980: Government increases the price of meat which results in strikes. * August 1980: Workers at Gdansk ship yard (led by Lech Walesa) put forward 21 demands to the government.
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depicts that an assembly of people formed an Indian National Congress committee with over 15 million members and 70 million participants. It was not until the emergence of this committee and Mahatma Gandhi that the public of India regained their momentum to free India. Source B backed up by another source (Rawking, F.W. Gandhi and the Struggle for Independence, pp 27-34) further reports that when Gandhi returned to India in '1915' and he organised protests for the rights of many laborers and in 1921 became the leader of the National Congress committee which allowed him to have nation - wide campaigns to ease poverty, expand women's rights, build religious and ethnic peace, end untouchability, and increase economic self-reliance.
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The USA was Democracy and the USSR was Communist. Communism believed in equality, which everyone should be equal. The government controlled many aspects of people's lives. There was strong censorship, and they were against individual profit making. Capitalism believed in freedom. There were free elections held, and the individuals are allowed to make profits and own lands. The two beliefs were against each other, so it was impossible that the two could have any long-term good relationships. The two sides not only had different beliefs, but different aims as well. After the World War II, Germany was split into four zones between Britain, France, USA and Russia.
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How far do you agree with the view in this source about the causes of the Korean war? (6 marks) This source is very one-sided as it was written by the British historian; Desmond Donnelly, 1965
The source has no mention of the USA joining the war- but because the source was written by the USA's allies at the time then it is no surprise. There was the whole fear of communism spreading but also the oppertunity to undermine communism.
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In general, the Jewish where much better organized then the Arabs and had a real official army, The Haganah. Where as the Arab side where just predominating Civilians. Deir Yassin came to be fought over in 1948 because of the Stern Gang, led by Yitzhek Shamir and the Irgun, led by Menachem Begin. Two Jewish terrorist and extremist groups who where involved in attacks on Palestinian villages such as Deir Yassin, best known for blowing up the British Military Headquarters at the King David Hotel. These groups where not part of the Haganah, the official Israeli army, they where two small extremist groups who could make their own decisions.
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There has been a significant Palestinian refugee problem for the last fifty years, who or what is responsible for this problem?
Sources A,B,C and G all tell us about this problem to an extent. Source A blames the Jewish for frightening the Arabs out of the country, however misses out the fact that the Arabs, did infact attack Israel in the first place. Source A also exadurates the problems at Deir Yassin to gain sympathy and understanding from the public. This source also doesn't mention that the Arabs could have joined with other countries, however refused because they did not want to become 'Jordanian-Arabs or Syrian Arabs'.
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The Argentine aircrafts outnumbered the British aircrafts by 22:120, and if they had been able to destroy Hermes and Invincible whilst they approached the Island, the situation could have been worse. Fighting a long way away from home would also mean that supplying the troops would be a problem. Admiral John Woodward quoted when the war was over, "We were on our last legs, if they had been able to hold on another week, it might have been a different story."
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This meant that the ships, as well as the supplies and replacement could arrive promptly at Falklands before the Winter arrived which would turn the sea bumpy, possibly with icebergs, increasing the possibility of ships sinking, losing masses of equipment. This was added on by the fact that the diplomacy put pressure on the Argentinians. The UN passed on resolution 502 to Argentina, encouraging their withdrawal because the UN wanted Britain and Argentina to have a diplomatic solution. This made Argentina thought that they were encircled by the world and was not supported by anybody which made them feel isolated
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This was called the airlift. As a result of the airlift 79 American and British pilots lost their lives during the airlifts. In May 1949 Stalin called off the Berlin Blockade as the Soviets realised that the people of West Berlin were managing fine with the help of the USA and the UK.
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Which was more important as a reason for the development of the Cold War Stalins action in Eastern Europe 1945-49 or the Truman Doctrine and the Marshal Plan 1947 1948
Stalin's army freed each of these countries from the Nazi's and set their communist governments in these countries. Stalin also broke his promise that he will allow free elections in Eastern Europe. The reason why Stalin imposed Communism on Eastern Europe was because Stalin wanted to build a buffer zone on the Western border because this would prevent and further invasion of Soviet Russia. Stalin did this to product Russia as Russia was affected very badly from both World War One and World War Two. However the West believed the Stain did this because he wanted to spread Communism all around the world.
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Stalin refused to be pushed around and showed no special interest, when secretly he was developing his own weapon. Their relationship was further strained when Stalin had broken his word and did not set up a capitalist government in Poland like he had promised. Already bitter divisions between the America and the USSR had shown, which some thought would lead to war. This was a very important event as this is where the division between the two countries was first shown.
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Neither side wanted nuclear war; détente was born. Each superpower had their own reasons for détente. These ranged from economical factors to political factors. Both sides, however, had a couple of shared motives; the first being that both leaders needed to decrease defence spending. The USSR was spending 20% of their annual budget on defence. This money needed to be used to improve living conditions and improve industrial efficiency in particular. The USA also needed to improve living conditions for their poor citizens and had to deal with added inflation also.
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How did the Village of Deir Yassin come to be Fought Over in 1948 and Why do Sources A and B Differ on who was to Blame for the Arab Flight from the Village and Other Parts of Palestine at that time?
This intention was promised in the MacMahon Letter in 1915, which said that Britain would "support the independence of the Arabs". The Arabs accepted British help, in the form of training from T. E. Lawrence (more commonly known as Lawrence of Arabia). Yet promises were also made to the Jews about obtaining a national Jewish state in order to try and tempt the USA into the war. There were a lot of Jews in America and Britain hoped that if they told the Zionists, Jews who wanted a national homeland, that the Jews could have a homeland, they would put pressure on America to join the war.
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There has been a significant Palestinian refugee problem for the last fifty years. Do these sources allow you to come to a firm conclusion about who or what is responsible for this problem?
At the 1978 peace talks at Camp David, Israeli and Egyptian Presidents agreed that Israel would withdraw from Sinai. Though this helped the refugees who were in Egypt, the refugees and other Arab fundamentalists assassinated President Sadat, of Egypt, for recognising Israel as a state and negotiating with it. Since 1988, the majority of Palestinian refugees have begun to see Israel as a state however other countries, like Lebanon, and splinter groups, like Hamas, continue to be violent towards Israel. This stopped a lot of terrorism for a short time but in 2006, Hamas won the majority of votes in a Palestinian election and so became the ruling party.
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In dropping the A bomb, at the end of WW2, on Japan was not only used to end the war but to create a strong military presence among the world, especially Russia. The occurrence of Nuclear weapons was thought to stop the every growing suspicious Stalin on his ongoing competition with the USA although the opposite had occurred, leaving Russia with Nuclear weapons. The Marshall plan and Truman Doctrine created by the US secretary of state, General George Marshall, in June 1947 had caused even more tensions between the two leaders.
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Stalin viwed Marshakk Aid with suspicion. He refused it and forbade any eastern European state to apply it. Stalin's view was that anti- Communist aims behind Marshall Aid would weaken his hold on eastern Europe.He also felt tgat the USA was trying to dominate as many states as possible by making them dependent on dollars. Why did the Soviet Union blockade Berlin? Germany had become a real headache for the Western Allies. After the destruction of war, their zones were in economic chaos. Stalin feared a recovering Germany and wanted to keep it crippled.
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Explain the part played by external pressure (for example, economic sanctions and international isolation in sport) in the fight against apartheid and minority rule in South Africa?
A consumer boycott is when individuals refuse to buy products from a certain place, individual or country. This is usually done for a very long while because it has long term affects. Examples include the US-led boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, the Soviet-led boycott of the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, and the movement that advocated "disinvestment" in South Africa during the 1980s in opposition to the country's apartheid regime. Major trading partners such as Britain, Germany, USA and Japan did not want to do sanctions because South Africa produced vital minerals and boycotting against the country would mean that their companies would lose investments.
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He called this new form of communism "socialism with a friendly face". Within this concept he planned to reduce the oppressive aspects of communism and bring in common capitalist aspects. He announced his reforms including: a relaxation of press censorship; the legalisation of political criticism and political opposition groups. These reforms were very popular amongst the citizens of Czechoslovakia but not with older Czechoslovakian communist traditionalists and certainly not with Brezhnev, the new Russian Premier. Brezhnev's response to Dubcek's reforms was ruthless. He quickly ordered the USSR army to invade Czechoslovakia with tanks.
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