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GCSE: International relations 1945-1991
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The Blacks were already taking over the skilled jobs and congregating around towns. This concerned the White Afrikaners greatly. The United Party who offered integration would keep things going this way but the National Party who offered apartheid wanted to terminate these two trends. At this point, apartheid seemed like a better choice because it would mean Whites getting the best of everything hence, the National Party won and gained power. When apartheid first started, it was not very established. New ideas were slowly implemented to segregate Blacks and Whites but first, they needed to identify the races of the people.
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He did this through fear and by rigging the election polls. The whole region was known as the "Soviet Bloc" or the "Eastern Bloc", and Stalin's Red Army was there to intimidate and eliminate the opposition. The secret police was also intimidating through imprisoning, killing, and torturing the opposition. Stalin replaced in governement anybody whom he suspected of lacking loyalty to him. On top of that, he controlled the press and prohibited free speech so that no one could criticize the governments.
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In 1986, Gorbachev continued an anti-alcohol program that he previous ruler, Andropov, had started. The price of vodka was increased, the legal drinking age was increased from 18 to 21 and the number of hours in which people could by alcohol were dropped. He hoped this would discourage workers from drinking and therefore improve the employees work rate and boosting the economy. This plan failed and Gorbachev was hated for it. Gorbachev?s policies of ?Glasnost? and ?Perestroika? also contributed to the collapse of communism.
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The after effects of World War Two were what ultimately ignited the Cold War. Phillips (2001) is of the belief that ?The defeat of Nazi Germany at the end of the end of the Second World War had left a power vacuum in Europe in 1945?? and the ??resulting tension which developed between the USA and USSR was in large due to attempts by both countries to fill this vacuum.? Smith (1989:27) strongly agrees with this statement: ?The ostensible basis of Soviet displeasure was their exclusion from Western deliberations on the political and economic future of Germany.? Ultimately, the West feared the spread of communism throughout Europe and thus, military alliances were formed to end this ?disease?.
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In 1941, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill met to discuss their ideas for the post war world. One of the things that came out of their discussion is the Atlantic Charter. It was an agreement between the U.S. and Great Britain that enacted the vision that Roosevelt had for the post-World War II world. However, when the Charter was signed on August 14, 1941, the United States was not even a part of the war at that moment.
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Which was the most important as a reason for the development of the Cold War in the years 1945-1955, Soviet expansion into Europe or the Formation of NATO and the Warsaw Pact?
frontier, the West pretty much regarded it as expansion and aggression, especially when the USSR held rigged elections and murdered opponents in order to set up communist-dominated governments in the Eastern European states. This deteriorated the relationship between the two superpowers, which would later lead to the Cold War. Churchill appeared to fear this Soviet advance as early as 1945, which was further demonstrated by his famous ?Iron Curtain? speech in 1946. Like the UK, America was also annoyed by the Soviet expansion, as it felt that the USSR was threatening its position as the world?s leading nation and the spread of communism might even threaten the American economy.
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Describe Khrushchev and Brezhnevs domestic policies. To what extent did they benefit the Russian people?
Managers were encouraged to make profits, instead of merely meeting quotas, and wages now depended on output. These undeniably capitalist measures certainly shocked the more conservative communist Russians, and these were primary reasons behind Khrushchev?s replacing by the Central Committee. But these certainly led to an acknowledgeable improvement in the workers? living standards. A vast housing program was started in 1958. Between 1955 and 66, the number of radios per thousand of the population increased from 66 to 171, television sets from 4 to 8, refrigerators from 4 to 40, and washing machines from 1 to 7.
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He offered many major concessions in the ongoing arms control negotiations. In 1986, he negotiated with American President Reagan in Reykjavík and dramatically offered massive cuts in Soviet armament, which would lead the elimination of all nuclear weapons within ten years. This proposal ran into problems, partly because US president Reagan was reluctant to give up his Star Wars project, but it did help convince a good number of people in the West that Gorbachev was a new type of Communist leader, and that he was truly intent on putting an end to the Cold War.
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