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GCSE: International relations 1945-1991

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  1. Isolation and Lack of Love in I'm the King of the Castle

    She becomes more and more happy throughout the book, as Mr Hooper pays for "cocktail parties" and shopping trips to London. It is not her love for Mr Hooper which makes her ignore Charles's declarations of his "hate" for Mr Hooper's, nor her affection for Edmund which prompts her to bring him gifts when he is in hospital, but rather her overwhelming need to be given attention and comfort. Mrs Kingshaw tries to convince herself she is a good mother who loves her son and attempts to keep up pretences and stick to all the clich�s as she feels she must.

    • Word count: 1202
  2. How did Mao Zedong secure control of China in the 1950's?

    Counter-revolutionary described someone who was against the communist revolution. To clear themselves of any suspicion of being counter-revolutionary, people began to accuse others. Mao introduced the idea of the carrot and stick method. He used policies which would improve the lives of certain groups of people as the carrot, and then used punishment as the stick. The stick policies consisted of Mao taking control over the cities in which there may be remaining support for the GMD. The GMD were the Guomindang. They were the opposition of the CCP.

    • Word count: 774
  3. explain how blacks disagreed amongst themselves

    Unlike King, Malcolm X advocated his action. He was involved with heavy violence and rioting, with force, however many did not like his approach, but was supported by the Black panthers, Stokey Carmichael and Black power. The Black Power movement marked a turning point in black-white relations in the United States and in how blacks saw themselves. The movement was hailed by some as a positive and proactive force aimed at helping blacks achieve full equality with whites, but it was reviled by others as a militant, sometimes violent faction whose primary goal was to drive a wedge between whites and blacks.

    • Word count: 945
  4. Why were mayor cities of Britain bombed by the Germans in 1940 /1941?

    My third choice for the blitz was to reduce the morale of the British people so they do not want to work in the factories and will put pressure on the government to come to terms with Hitler. My first reason for the blitz on the major cities of England was because of a British retaliation bombing on Berlin. The retaliation by the British was caused by an accidental bombing by the Germans, the bombs fell on the center of London, when they were supposed to drop on the outskirts only. The bombs fell on the night of August 24th, 1940.

    • Word count: 645
  5. Why is Isreal Win

    This allowed them, unlike the Arab states that had a bigger population to call up troops from the reserves to increase their army to 300,000 to the Arab states 180,000. Though they seemed low on numbers in 1948, the Israeli defence forces were in fact very well prepared for war. David Ben-Gurion was one of those who had welded together various groups into the Israeli army. The Haganah was the official Jewish militia, formed with British help to enable the Jews in Palestine to defend themselves against attacks from Arabs.

    • Word count: 550
  6. Conflict and Quest for Peace in the Middle East

    On 6th October the Egyptians and Syrians attacked. This was the most holy day of the Jewish calendar, Yom Kippur, and all the Israelis were worshiping. The conflict was going well to begin with, however, the Egyptians only advanced 12Km, as this was the range of their SAM umbrella, this meant that the Israelis could concentrate on the Syrian invasion in the North. The Syrians then forced the Egyptians to advance further, this left the Egyptians exposed, and 250 Egyptian tanks were destroyed in 3 hours.

    • Word count: 998
  7. key features of the cuban missile crisis

    The Cubans then signed an agreement with the Soviets meaning that the Soviet Union bought 1 million tonnes of Cuban sugar every year, this closely linked the countries together and within a month Castro had nationalised all business and property in Cuba. This friendship scared the Americans because now their enemies had allies right on their doorstep.

    • Word count: 485
  8. Why did relations between the USA and the USSR change in the period from the end of WW2 and the beginning of the Berlin Blockade 1948?

    So overall the relationship between the USA and the USSR did not seem bad at all. However in the time between the Yalta Conference and the Potsdam Conference many things changed. Stalin went against some of the agreements that had been made at Yalta, such as setting up a communist government and this meant that the USA lost trust in him. Also Truman took over as president and he did not trust Stalin as much as Roosevelt had which created more tension between the two sides.

    • Word count: 708
  9. superpower relations questions

    It was also decided that there should be de-nazification of Germany (eradicating any presence of Nazi rule) through holding trials where war criminals would be punished for their crimes during the war (Nuremberg trials.). iii) Describe the key features of the Marshall Plan (1947) (5) A key feature of the Marshall Plan which was set up in 1947, was as a European Recovery programme where billions of dollars were given to European countries to recover from post war damage to their country. For example, France's economy had been destroyed by Germany's occupation, and Britain was exhausted by the war effort.

    • Word count: 1533
  10. The Greek Diaspora to Australia

    The first Greek Australian citizens were two out of seven Greek convicts transported to Australia for piracy. They completed their sentence and then became newly made Australian Citizens. As immense events took place in Greece involving the failure of recapturing their land which had fell in Turkish hands and the Great Depression of the 1930's the country was sent into chaos. What were the citizens of this once proud country going to do? With no choice but to look as far and wide for work they began to emigrate all around the globe. This brought small groups to the "great southern land" of Australia (their ally in the war against the Nazis).

    • Word count: 850
  11. Greek Migration to Australia

    Through the times though our Greek forefathers made some significant contributions to society; the most relevant contributions made by the migrant Greeks in Australia would have been in the food and hospitality industry. The use of many herbs and spices in contemporary Australian cuisine are of traditional western custom. Although were the true influence becomes prevalent is in the preparation of food. The taste of food prepared over coal is incredible, it possesses fantastic flavours (lamb spit) this particular method of preparing food has been used by the Greeks for centuries.

    • Word count: 964
  12. Why did the USA use nuclear weapons against Japan in August 1945?

    However the USA was not as badly damaged as hoped, and was outraged by what they saw as a cruel and unprovoked attack. It can be argued that America's thirst for revenge was one of the reasons for dropping the atom bombs on Japan. This reason was public in that the American public knew about Pearl Harbor and there was a general thirst for revenge, but it was not put forward as a reason by the American government, so in that way it was more private. Another public reason was that the Japanese treated US prisoners of war very badly.

    • Word count: 1217
  13. In February 1943, the German army surrendered at Stalingrad. Was Hitler's interference the main reason for this defeat? Explain your answer.

    Underestimation of the Russians meant that Hitler didn't think twice about diverting Hoth's army, the 4th tank army, from the assault on Stalingrad with Von Paulus's army, the 6th army. The 6th army moved to Stalingrad alone, and the 4th tank army headed towards the Caucuses to capture oil. The idea was that the oil fields in the Caucuses would be captured, whilst the capture of Stalingrad would cut the Caucuses off from Russia. The problem with splitting the forces was that Hitler was undermining a key element of Blitzkrieg, the tank divisions which should have accompanied the 6th army.

    • Word count: 3402
  14. Why did Gorbachev introduce the policy of 'Perestroika' and what were its successes and failures?

    Gorbachev also wanted a political form of perestroika to halt corruption within the Party and end the 'stability of cadres'- instead of the alleged continuity of experience, end the creeping corruption within the party, thereby allowing less criticism of the government. Economic Perestroika: Gorbachev instigated 'Restructuring' of the economy to reverse the negative growth in the 1970s and early 1980s by encouraging a measure of free enterprise and small private firms were allowed to compete with those run by the state.

    • Word count: 943
  15. In 1945, atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Why did the Americans decide to carry out these attacks? Explain your answer.

    Truman had a rude and abrasive attitude towards Molotov, calling him a liar and a deal breaker (over Poland). This attitude was shocking to Molotov, who had never been spoken to in such an undiplomatic way before. This meant that tensions were high between Russia and the USA. The USA were also concerned over what the Russian post-war ambitions would be; they feared and hated communism and were concerned that the Russians may have expansionist ideas. Due to these factors over the tension with Russia, the Americans had more reason to want drop the bomb: they wanted to open up

    • Word count: 1740
  16. The Arab-Israeli Conflict

    Until 642AD only small numbers of Arabs lived in Palestine. But in 1523 Palestine was conquered by the Turks and became part of the Ottoman Empire. However, the Turks and Arabs were both Muslims. 2. Events since 1948 After the Partition Plan was enforced in 1948, the Jews were given 14760km2 of fertile land. It had taken the Zionists 70 years to purchase 7% of Palestine, and now the UN was offering them another 50%. The plan was rejected by all Arab governments. However, the Zionists were not completely happy either, as Jerusalem was excluded as a Jewish state.

    • Word count: 885
  17. Did the Soweto Uprising on June 16th 1976 lead to the death of Steve Biko?

    Biko died in police custody on September 12, 1977. He was a non-violent activist; even though the movement he helped start eventually took up violent resistance. The Black Consciousness movement gave hope and pride to the thousands of young black students which ultimately fueled the fire for the Soweto Uprising of 1976, Biko's vision of a liberal and free South Africa and his idea of one nation and an egalitarian society made him a target for the police and the fact that he was such a intelligent and brilliant man also made him a threat to the government.

    • Word count: 560
  18. The Attack On Pearl Harbour

    The Allies were the countries that were against the Axis Powers. The Allies included countries like Britain, France, the U.S.A, and Russia. The three leaders of the Allied Powers were Franklin D. Roosevelt, who was the present president of the U.S.A. at that time, Winston Churchill, the prime minister of Britain, and Joseph Stalin Who was the Ruler of Russia.

    • Word count: 527
  19. What were the impacts of the Cuban Missile Crisis

    So, in 1963, an agreement was reached, the Hot-line Treaty, initially using teletype, telegraph and radio-telegraph communication links. Of course with the development of new technologies, these communication links have been upgraded. USA and Russia also signed a series of agreements; one called the Anti Ballistic Missile treaty. In this treaty, the USA and USSR agreed that each country could only have two anti-ballistic missiles and only two ABM deployment areas.

    • Word count: 476
  20. Who was to Blame for the Cold War

    He set up communist governments in all countries from Albania to East Germany. Churchill called this division, between the capitalist West and Stalin's East Europe 'an iron curtain'. Some argue that if Stalin had not pursued such radical expansionism then the Cold War would not have happened. The West was clearly alarmed by these 'invasions' which was what they were, and felt they had to do something to stop this, hence the flaunting of nuclear weapons and the enticement of Europe through the Marshall Plan. The West feared a Communist attack following its rapid expansion and thought that unless they did something they would have to live under the oppression and tyrannical Communists.

    • Word count: 995
  21. Suez Canal Crisis

    By taking over the canal he had taken away that trust and put himself in the bad books of Sir Eden. He had also done so without consulting or giving consent to anyone and Eden thought this was selfish and illegal. Colonel Nasser now had full control of the canal and could stop all exports/imports Britain was making and this was a big worry for Sir Eden. If Nasser was to make this happen, Britain would become isolated, and necessities such as Oil would become unavailable.

    • Word count: 2398
  22. the collapse of the war

    Germany was split into 4 zones with the Soviet Union, Great Britain, USA and France each getting a piece. Germany was obliged to pay off only 20 billion in German property, current industry products and work force. The Cold war prevented the full payment. 5. The Berlin blockade was the separation of the Soviet zone of Berlin from West Berlin and West Germany on 24th June 1948. Stalin cut of all rain and road links to West Berlin in order to starve Berlin to surrender. During this period of time, special airlifts had been sent with supplies of everything West Berlin needed.

    • Word count: 886
  23. Question 2. Explain why the rest of the World is so interested in the outcome of the Palestine and Israel dispute.

    Jerusalem has been the Holiest city in Judaism and the spiritual homeland of the Jewish people since the 10th century BC. For Christians, Jerusalem's place in the life of Jesus gives it great importance, in addition to its place in the Old Testament. Jerusalem has played a great role in Islam. It is the location of the Al-Aqsa Mosque, considered by many Muslims to be the third Holiest site in Islam. Jerusalem has a huge role in the Palestinian-Israeli conflict as Palestinians believe it to be their land, but Israel judges it to be their land.

    • Word count: 2214
  24. Question 3. What problems will have to be

    The Palestinian Authority is now run by Hamas, which has rejected a full recognition of Israel and refused to give their backing to the previous agreements. It is in a struggle for power with the Fatah movement led by the Palestinian President, Mahmoud Abbas, who took over after the death of Yasser Arafat. Jerusalem has been a big talking point in the conflict in the Middle East. Jerusalem has changed hands many times, because of it's religious significance and has been occupied by Jewish, Christian and Muslim conquerors.

    • Word count: 1063
  25. Why and how did the Cold War develop until 1949?

    The Western countries such as the USA and the Britain were a democratic state. They believed in free elections and a right to free speech. In 1922, Russia merged with five neighbouring states to from the Soviet Union. By 1936 Russia added more 5 states. It was obvious that the Soviet Union was rapidly growing. The Soviets didn't agree with the USA and the British's democratic ideas. They ensured the countries in Eastern Europe were communist by rigging elections or throwing out important members of the government.

    • Word count: 1077

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